Abstract

Very fine silicate-rich volcanic ash, generated by explosive volcanic eruptions, can efficiently be traced downwind with infrared satellite sounders. Their measurements can also be used to derive physical parameters, such as optical depths and effective radii. However, one of the key requirements for accurate retrievals is a good knowledge of the complex refractive index (CRI) of the ash under investigation. In the past, the vast majority of the studies used the CRIs from Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973) [CrossRef]  ], which are based on measurements of thin slices of volcanic rock, and therefore are not representative for airborne volcanic ash particles. Here, we report measurements of the CRI of volcanic ash in suspension, generated from samples collected from recent high-impact eruptions in Chile (Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Calbuco, and Chaitén), Iceland (Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn), and Italy (Etna). The samples cover a wide range of ${{\rm SiO}_2}$ content (46% to 76%) as confirmed by an X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the experimental setup, volcanic ash was suspended in nitrogen through mechanical agitation. Extinction spectra were recorded in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral regions. The particle size distribution within the airflow was also recorded. An iterative algorithm allowed us to obtain fully consistent CRIs for the six samples, compatible with the observed extinction spectra and the Kramers–Krönig relations. While a good agreement is found with other recently reported CRIs in the UV/Vis, larger differences are found in the longwave infrared spectral region.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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2019 (3)

M. Gouhier, J. Eychenne, N. Azzaoui, A. Guillin, M. Deslandes, M. Poret, A. Costa, and P. Husson, “Low efficiency of large volcanic eruptions in transporting very fine ash into the atmosphere,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1449 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. S. Prata, L. J. Ventress, E. Carboni, T. A. Mather, R. G. Grainger, and D. M. Pyle, “A new parameterization of volcanic ash complex refractive index based on NBO/t and SiO2 content,” J. Geophys. Res. 124, 1779–1797 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Viccaro, M. Giuffrida, F. Zuccarello, M. Scandura, M. Palano, and S. Gresta, “Violent paroxysmal activity drives self-feeding magma replenishment at Mt. Etna,” Sci. Rep. 9, 6717 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

B. E. Reed, D. M. Peters, R. McPheat, and R. G. Grainger, “The complex refractive index of volcanic ash aerosol retrieved from spectral mass extinction,” J. Geophys. Res. 123, 1339–1350 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

P. Hubert, H. Herbin, N. Visez, O. Pujol, and D. Petitprez, “New approach for the determination of aerosol refractive indices–Part II: experimental set-up and application to amorphous silica particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 200, 320–327 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Herbin, O. Pujol, P. Hubert, and D. Petitprez, “New approach for the determination of aerosol refractive indices–Part I: theoretical bases and numerical methodology,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 200, 311–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Alloway, N. Pearce, P. Moreno, G. Villarosa, I. Jara, R. De Pol-Holz, and V. Outes, “An 18, 000 year-long eruptive record from Volcán Chaitén, northwestern Patagonia: paleoenvironmental and hazard-assessment implications,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 168, 151–181 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

M. Elissondo, V. Baumann, C. Bonadonna, M. Pistolesi, R. Cioni, A. Bertagnini, S. Biass, J.-C. Herrero, and R. Gonzalez, “Chronology and impact of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 675–704 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. J. Ventress, G. McGarragh, E. Carboni, A. J. Smith, and R. G. Grainger, “Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5407–5422 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dean, C. Taltavull, and T. Clyne, “Influence of the composition and viscosity of volcanic ashes on their adhesion within gas turbine aeroengines,” Acta Mater. 109, 8–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Romero, D. Morgavi, F. Arzilli, R. Daga, A. Caselli, F. Reckziegel, J. Viramonte, J. Daz-Alvarado, M. Polacci, M. Burton, and D. Perugini, “Eruption dynamics of the 22-23 April 2015 Calbuco volcano (southern Chile): Analyses of tephra fall deposits,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 317, 15–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Reckziegel, E. Bustos, L. Mingari, W. Báez, G. Villarosa, A. Folch, E. Collini, J. Viramonte, J. Romero, and S. Osores, “Forecasting volcanic ash dispersal and coeval resuspension during the April-May 2015 Calbuco eruption,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 321, 44–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Alexander, D. M. Bell, D. Imre, P. D. Kleiber, V. H. Grassian, and A. Zelenyuk, “Measurement of size-dependent dynamic shape factors of quartz particles in two flow regimes,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 50, 870–879 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. G. C. Ball, B. E. Reed, R. G. Grainger, D. M. Peters, T. A. Mather, and D. M. Pyle, “Measurements of the complex refractive index of volcanic ash at 450, 546.7, and 650 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7747–7757 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kylling, N. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, R. Buras-Schnell, C. Emde, and J. Gasteiger, “A model sensitivity study of the impact of clouds on satellite detection and retrieval of volcanic ash,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1935–1949 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. V. Alloway, N. J. G. Pearce, G. Villarosa, V. Outes, and P. I. Moreno, “Multiple melt bodies fed the AD 2011 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17589 (2015).

D. D. Genova, D. Morgavi, K.-U. Hess, D. R. Neuville, N. Borovkov, D. Perugini, and D. B. Dingwell, “Approximate chemical analysis of volcanic glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46, 1235–1244 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. D. Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti, “Variability of the infrared complex refractive index of African mineral dust: experimental estimation and implications for radiative transfer and satellite remote sensing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 11093–11116 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner, “Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 14, 1099–1123 (2014).
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E. D. Moxnes, N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, L. Clarisse, A. Durant, K. Weber, and A. Vogel, “Separation of ash and sulfur dioxide during the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 7477–7501 (2014).
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2013 (3)

C. Horwell, P. Baxter, S. Hillman, J. Calkins, D. Damby, P. Delmelle, K. Donaldson, C. Dunster, B. Fubini, F. Kelly, J. L. Blond, K. Livi, F. Murphy, C. Nattrass, S. Sweeney, T. Tetley, T. Thordarson, and M. Tomatis, “Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol,” Environ. Res. 127, 63–73 (2013).
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L. Clarisse, P.-F. Coheur, F. Prata, J. Hadji-Lazaro, D. Hurtmans, and C. Clerbaux, “A unified approach to infrared aerosol remote sensing and type specification,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2195–2221 (2013).
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S. Scollo, G. A. Baratta, M. E. Palumbo, S. Corradini, G. Leto, and G. Strazzulla, “Linking the IR transmittance to size and type of volcanic ash particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 12207–12215 (2013).
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2012 (8)

M. T. Gudmundsson, T. Thordarson, Á. Höskuldsson, G. Larsen, H. Björnsson, F. J. Prata, B. Oddsson, E. Magnússon, T. Högnadóttir, G. N. Petersen, C. L. Hayward, J. A. Stevenson, and I. Jónsdóttir, “Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland,” Sci. Rep. 2, 572 (2012).
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E. Collini, M. S. Osores, A. Folch, J. G. Viramonte, G. Villarosa, and G. Salmuni, “Volcanic ash forecast during the June 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption,” Nat. Hazards 66, 389–412 (2012).
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A. J. Durant, G. Villarosa, W. I. Rose, P. Delmelle, A. J. Prata, and J. G. Viramonte, “Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile,” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C 45–46, 50–64 (2012).
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S. M. Newman, L. Clarisse, D. Hurtmans, F. Marenco, B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, D. O’Sullivan, and J. Haywood, “A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 2. airborne and satellite radiative measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D00U13 (2012).
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T. M. Wilson, C. Stewart, V. Sword-Daniels, G. S. Leonard, D. M. Johnston, J. W. Cole, J. Wardman, G. Wilson, and S. T. Barnard, “Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure,” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C 45–46, 5–23 (2012).
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P. N. Francis, M. C. Cooke, and R. W. Saunders, “Retrieval of physical properties of volcanic ash using Meteosat: a case study from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D00U09 (2012).
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A. J. Prata and A. T. Prata, “Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash concentrations determined using spin enhanced visible and infrared imager measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D00U23 (2012).
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B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, P. Brown, R. Burgess, J. Dorsey, A. J. Baran, H. Webster, J. Haywood, R. Cotton, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hesse, A. Woolley, and P. Rosenberg, “In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D00U24 (2012).
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2011 (3)

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
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U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
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A. Stohl, A. J. Prata, S. Eckhardt, L. Clarisse, A. Durant, S. Henne, N. I. Kristiansen, A. Minikin, U. Schumann, P. Seibert, K. Stebel, H. E. Thomas, T. Thorsteinsson, K. Tørseth, and B. Weinzierl, “Determination of time and height resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 4333–4351 (2011).
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2010 (7)

G. Gangale, A. Prata, and L. Clarisse, “The infrared spectral signature of volcanic ash determined from high-spectral resolution satellite measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 414–425 (2010).
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L. Clarisse, D. Hurtmans, A. J. Prata, F. Karagulian, C. Clerbaux, M. D. Mazière, and P.-F. Coheur, “Retrieving radius, concentration, optical depth, and mass of different types of aerosols from high-resolution infrared nadir spectra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3713–3722 (2010).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L13810 (2010).
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A. R. Donovan and C. Oppenheimer, “The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption and the reconstruction of geography,” Geograph. J. 177, 4–11 (2010).
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M. T. Gudmundsson, R. Pedersen, K. Vogfjörd, B. Thorbjarnardóttir, S. Jakobsdóttir, and M. J. Roberts, “Eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 91, 190–191 (2010).
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F. Sigmundsson and Á. Höskuldsson, “Develop instruments to monitor volcanic ash fallout,” Nature 466, 28 (2010).
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L. Clarisse, F. Prata, J.-L. Lacour, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, and P.-F. Coheur, “A correlation method for volcanic ash detection using hyperspectral infrared measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L19806 (2010).
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2009 (1)

A. J. Prata, “Satellite detection of hazardous volcanic clouds and the risk to global air traffic,” Nat. Hazards 51, 303–324 (2009).
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2007 (1)

2005 (2)

G. E. Thomas, S. F. Bass, R. G. Grainger, and A. Lambert, “Retrieval of aerosol refractive index from extinction spectra with a damped harmonic-oscillator band model,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1332–1341 (2005).
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J. Volckens and T. M. Peters, “Counting and particle transmission efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 1400–1408 (2005).
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2004 (1)

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 1185–1205 (2004).
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2003 (1)

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627–634 (2003).
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2002 (1)

A. J. Armendariz and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency for the aerodynamic particle sizer 3320,” J. Aerosol Sci. 33, 133–148 (2002).
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1999 (1)

J. Thornburg, S. J. Cooper, and D. Leith, “Counting efficiency of the API aerosizer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 479–488 (1999).
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1989 (1)

K. H. Wohletz, M. F. Sheridan, and W. K. Brown, “Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. [Solid Earth] 94, 15703–15721 (1989).
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1986 (1)

M. J. L. Bas, R. W. L. Maitre, A. Streckeisen, and B. Zanettin, “A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram,” J. Petrol. 27, 745–750 (1986).
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1975 (1)

W. G. Egan, T. Hilgeman, and K. Pang, “Ultraviolet complex refractive index of Martian dust: Laboratory measurements of terrestrial analogs,” Icarus 25, 344–355 (1975).
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1973 (2)

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, and B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
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F. E. Volz, “Infrared optical constants of ammonium sulfate, Sahara dust, volcanic pumice, and flyash,” Appl. Opt. 12, 564–568 (1973).
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1971 (2)

R. K. Ahrenkiel, “Modified Kramers–Kronig analysis of optical spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1651–1655 (1971).
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P. Kotrappa, “Shape factors for quartz aerosol in respirable size range,” J. Aerosol Sci. 2, 353–359 (1971).
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Ahrenkiel, R. K.

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J. M. Alexander, D. M. Bell, D. Imre, P. D. Kleiber, V. H. Grassian, and A. Zelenyuk, “Measurement of size-dependent dynamic shape factors of quartz particles in two flow regimes,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 50, 870–879 (2016).
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Alloway, B.

B. Alloway, N. Pearce, P. Moreno, G. Villarosa, I. Jara, R. De Pol-Holz, and V. Outes, “An 18, 000 year-long eruptive record from Volcán Chaitén, northwestern Patagonia: paleoenvironmental and hazard-assessment implications,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 168, 151–181 (2017).
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Alloway, B. V.

B. V. Alloway, N. J. G. Pearce, G. Villarosa, V. Outes, and P. I. Moreno, “Multiple melt bodies fed the AD 2011 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17589 (2015).

Ansmann, A.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L13810 (2010).
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Armendariz, A. J.

A. J. Armendariz and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency for the aerodynamic particle sizer 3320,” J. Aerosol Sci. 33, 133–148 (2002).
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Arzilli, F.

J. Romero, D. Morgavi, F. Arzilli, R. Daga, A. Caselli, F. Reckziegel, J. Viramonte, J. Daz-Alvarado, M. Polacci, M. Burton, and D. Perugini, “Eruption dynamics of the 22-23 April 2015 Calbuco volcano (southern Chile): Analyses of tephra fall deposits,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 317, 15–29 (2016).
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Azzaoui, N.

M. Gouhier, J. Eychenne, N. Azzaoui, A. Guillin, M. Deslandes, M. Poret, A. Costa, and P. Husson, “Low efficiency of large volcanic eruptions in transporting very fine ash into the atmosphere,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1449 (2019).
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F. Reckziegel, E. Bustos, L. Mingari, W. Báez, G. Villarosa, A. Folch, E. Collini, J. Viramonte, J. Romero, and S. Osores, “Forecasting volcanic ash dispersal and coeval resuspension during the April-May 2015 Calbuco eruption,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 321, 44–57 (2016).
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Ball, J. G. C.

J. G. C. Ball, B. E. Reed, R. G. Grainger, D. M. Peters, T. A. Mather, and D. M. Pyle, “Measurements of the complex refractive index of volcanic ash at 450, 546.7, and 650 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7747–7757 (2015).
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B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, P. Brown, R. Burgess, J. Dorsey, A. J. Baran, H. Webster, J. Haywood, R. Cotton, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hesse, A. Woolley, and P. Rosenberg, “In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D00U24 (2012).
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S. M. Newman, L. Clarisse, D. Hurtmans, F. Marenco, B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, D. O’Sullivan, and J. Haywood, “A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 2. airborne and satellite radiative measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D00U13 (2012).
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Baratta, G. A.

S. Scollo, G. A. Baratta, M. E. Palumbo, S. Corradini, G. Leto, and G. Strazzulla, “Linking the IR transmittance to size and type of volcanic ash particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 12207–12215 (2013).
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Barnard, S. T.

T. M. Wilson, C. Stewart, V. Sword-Daniels, G. S. Leonard, D. M. Johnston, J. W. Cole, J. Wardman, G. Wilson, and S. T. Barnard, “Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure,” Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C 45–46, 5–23 (2012).
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Bas, M. J. L.

M. J. L. Bas, R. W. L. Maitre, A. Streckeisen, and B. Zanettin, “A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram,” J. Petrol. 27, 745–750 (1986).
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U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
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M. Elissondo, V. Baumann, C. Bonadonna, M. Pistolesi, R. Cioni, A. Bertagnini, S. Biass, J.-C. Herrero, and R. Gonzalez, “Chronology and impact of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 675–704 (2016).
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C. Horwell, P. Baxter, S. Hillman, J. Calkins, D. Damby, P. Delmelle, K. Donaldson, C. Dunster, B. Fubini, F. Kelly, J. L. Blond, K. Livi, F. Murphy, C. Nattrass, S. Sweeney, T. Tetley, T. Thordarson, and M. Tomatis, “Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol,” Environ. Res. 127, 63–73 (2013).
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Baxter, P. J.

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Bell, D. M.

J. M. Alexander, D. M. Bell, D. Imre, P. D. Kleiber, V. H. Grassian, and A. Zelenyuk, “Measurement of size-dependent dynamic shape factors of quartz particles in two flow regimes,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 50, 870–879 (2016).
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Bertagnini, A.

M. Elissondo, V. Baumann, C. Bonadonna, M. Pistolesi, R. Cioni, A. Bertagnini, S. Biass, J.-C. Herrero, and R. Gonzalez, “Chronology and impact of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 675–704 (2016).
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Biagio, C. D.

C. D. Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti, “Variability of the infrared complex refractive index of African mineral dust: experimental estimation and implications for radiative transfer and satellite remote sensing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 11093–11116 (2014).
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Biass, S.

M. Elissondo, V. Baumann, C. Bonadonna, M. Pistolesi, R. Cioni, A. Bertagnini, S. Biass, J.-C. Herrero, and R. Gonzalez, “Chronology and impact of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 675–704 (2016).
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Bilotta, G.

A. Cappello, G. Ganci, G. Bilotta, A. Herault, V. Zago, and C. D. Negro, “Satellite-driven modeling approach for monitoring lava flow hazards during the 2017 Etna eruption,” (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 2018).

Björnsson, H.

M. T. Gudmundsson, T. Thordarson, Á. Höskuldsson, G. Larsen, H. Björnsson, F. J. Prata, B. Oddsson, E. Magnússon, T. Högnadóttir, G. N. Petersen, C. L. Hayward, J. A. Stevenson, and I. Jónsdóttir, “Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland,” Sci. Rep. 2, 572 (2012).
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Blond, J. L.

C. Horwell, P. Baxter, S. Hillman, J. Calkins, D. Damby, P. Delmelle, K. Donaldson, C. Dunster, B. Fubini, F. Kelly, J. L. Blond, K. Livi, F. Murphy, C. Nattrass, S. Sweeney, T. Tetley, T. Thordarson, and M. Tomatis, “Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol,” Environ. Res. 127, 63–73 (2013).
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Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bonadonna, C.

M. Elissondo, V. Baumann, C. Bonadonna, M. Pistolesi, R. Cioni, A. Bertagnini, S. Biass, J.-C. Herrero, and R. Gonzalez, “Chronology and impact of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 16, 675–704 (2016).
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Borovkov, N.

D. D. Genova, D. Morgavi, K.-U. Hess, D. R. Neuville, N. Borovkov, D. Perugini, and D. B. Dingwell, “Approximate chemical analysis of volcanic glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46, 1235–1244 (2015).
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Boucher, H.

C. D. Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti, “Variability of the infrared complex refractive index of African mineral dust: experimental estimation and implications for radiative transfer and satellite remote sensing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 11093–11116 (2014).
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Brenot, H.

H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner, “Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 14, 1099–1123 (2014).
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Brown, P.

B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, P. Brown, R. Burgess, J. Dorsey, A. J. Baran, H. Webster, J. Haywood, R. Cotton, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hesse, A. Woolley, and P. Rosenberg, “In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D00U24 (2012).
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Brown, W. K.

K. H. Wohletz, M. F. Sheridan, and W. K. Brown, “Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. [Solid Earth] 94, 15703–15721 (1989).
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Buras-Schnell, R.

A. Kylling, N. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, R. Buras-Schnell, C. Emde, and J. Gasteiger, “A model sensitivity study of the impact of clouds on satellite detection and retrieval of volcanic ash,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1935–1949 (2015).
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Burgess, R.

B. Johnson, K. Turnbull, P. Brown, R. Burgess, J. Dorsey, A. J. Baran, H. Webster, J. Haywood, R. Cotton, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hesse, A. Woolley, and P. Rosenberg, “In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D00U24 (2012).
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Burton, M.

J. Romero, D. Morgavi, F. Arzilli, R. Daga, A. Caselli, F. Reckziegel, J. Viramonte, J. Daz-Alvarado, M. Polacci, M. Burton, and D. Perugini, “Eruption dynamics of the 22-23 April 2015 Calbuco volcano (southern Chile): Analyses of tephra fall deposits,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 317, 15–29 (2016).
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Bustos, E.

F. Reckziegel, E. Bustos, L. Mingari, W. Báez, G. Villarosa, A. Folch, E. Collini, J. Viramonte, J. Romero, and S. Osores, “Forecasting volcanic ash dispersal and coeval resuspension during the April-May 2015 Calbuco eruption,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 321, 44–57 (2016).
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Calkins, J.

C. Horwell, P. Baxter, S. Hillman, J. Calkins, D. Damby, P. Delmelle, K. Donaldson, C. Dunster, B. Fubini, F. Kelly, J. L. Blond, K. Livi, F. Murphy, C. Nattrass, S. Sweeney, T. Tetley, T. Thordarson, and M. Tomatis, “Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol,” Environ. Res. 127, 63–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cappello, A.

A. Cappello, G. Ganci, G. Bilotta, A. Herault, V. Zago, and C. D. Negro, “Satellite-driven modeling approach for monitoring lava flow hazards during the 2017 Etna eruption,” (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 2018).

Caquineau, S.

C. D. Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti, “Variability of the infrared complex refractive index of African mineral dust: experimental estimation and implications for radiative transfer and satellite remote sensing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 11093–11116 (2014).
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Carboni, E.

G. S. Prata, L. J. Ventress, E. Carboni, T. A. Mather, R. G. Grainger, and D. M. Pyle, “A new parameterization of volcanic ash complex refractive index based on NBO/t and SiO2 content,” J. Geophys. Res. 124, 1779–1797 (2019).
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L. J. Ventress, G. McGarragh, E. Carboni, A. J. Smith, and R. G. Grainger, “Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5407–5422 (2016).
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Carn, S.

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Supplementary Material (6)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Complex refractive index of Calbuco sample.
» Data File 2       Complex refractive index of Chaitén sample.
» Data File 3       Complex refractive index of Etna sample.
» Data File 4       Complex refractive index of Grímsvötn sample.
» Data File 5       Complex refractive index of Eyjafjallajokull sample.
» Data File 6       Complex refractive index of Puyehue Cordon Caulle sample.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. TAS diagram with the ash samples measured in this study, and those of others for which refractive indices in the thermal infrared are available. The values for Spurr comes from Ref. [31].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Photo of the experimental setup. On the left, the ash is brought into suspension in a homogenous way. The flow then continues in the spectrometers, before reaching the APS that measures the size distribution of the particles in the flow.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Extinction spectra of the six volcanic ash samples: (in gray) the original extinction spectra recorded by spectrometers and (in blue) the spectra simulated at the end of the retrieval routine (from the Mie theory using the retrieved CRI).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Size distribution of the six volcanic ash samples fitted with lognormal function. Histograms represent the measured size distribution and red lines show the fit with lognormal function.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. A priori values of $\kappa$ associated with the standard deviation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Real and imaginary parts of the CRIs of the six volcanic ash samples. See supplementary material for underlying values.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Correlation between the real part of the CRI at 550 nm and the ${{\rm SiO}_2}$ content.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of real and imaginary parts of CRIs from bulk material (blue, [26]), resuspended particles (green, [34]), and this study (red).

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Overview of Complex Refractive Indices of Volcanic Ash and Igneous Volcanic Rocks Retrieved in the Infrared Spectral Regiona

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Table 2. Volcanic Ash Samples and Their Major Elemental Composition Determined by an XRF Analysis (in Oxide Weight %)

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Table 3. Parameters Composing the A Priori State Vector Associated with Their Variabilities

Equations (2)

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n ( ν ~ ) n = 2 π P 0 ν ~ κ ( ν ~ ) ν ~ 2 ν ~ 2 d ν ~ ,
D G = D A χ ρ 0 ρ ,