Abstract

PbSe thin films were deposited on ${{\rm SiO}_2}/{\rm Si}$ wafers using chemical bath deposition for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detection. To enhance the photosensitivity of PbSe thin films, oxidation, followed by iodization, was performed to create a ${{\rm PbI}_2}/{\rm PbSe}$ two-layer system for efficient MWIR detection in the spectral range from 3 µm to 5 µm. A near-infrared (IR) laser annealing was performed after sensitization with 1070 nm wavelength at an energy density of ${1}\;{{\rm J/cm}^2}$ to selectively heat the PbSe thin films. After IR laser annealing, the change in resistance between dark condition and MWIR illumination improved significantly from 19.8% to 22.6%. In addition, the dark resistance increased by 32.5% after IR laser annealing. IR photoluminescence spectra after IR laser annealing shows an increase in the sub-peak intensities from iodine incorporation. The results indicate that more iodine is incorporated into Se sites at the outer regions of PbSe grains. Therefore, more donors (electrons) from iodine diffuse into PbSe and recombine with holes so that PbSe thin film after IR laser annealing shows much higher dark resistance. Test devices with NiCr electrodes at the bottom of PbSe were fabricated with feature sizes of 40 µm to investigate the effect of IR laser annealing on electrical properties and specific detectivity (${D}^*$). I-V characteristics show dark resistance increased after IR laser annealing. The specific detectivity increases significantly after IR laser annealing at the applied bias of 10 V at 270 K from $0.55 \times {10^{10}}\; {\rm cm \, H}{z^{1/2}}\;{{\rm W}^{- 1}}$ to $1.23 \times {10^{10}}\; {\rm cm\, H}{z^{1/2}}\; {{\rm W}^{- 1}}$ due to dramatic noise reduction, which is originated from higher dark resistance.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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