Abstract

An analytical development is presented to assess the collective effect of fiber nonlinearities such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) due to a distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) on the bit error rate (BER) performance of a wavelength division multiplexing transmission system with forward pumping and a coherent optical receiver. Expressions are developed for a signal to crosstalk plus the noise ratio at the output of the optical fiber and optical receiver. The analytical results are found to match simulation results reported earlier, and coherent detection is found to be less affected by nonlinear effects compared to direct detection. XPM causes about 20–30 dB more penalty than ASE or SRS.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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