Abstract

A noncontact method to identify sparsely distributed plastic pellets is proposed by integrating holography and Raman spectroscopy in this study. Polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) resin pellets with a size of 3 mm located in a 20 cm water channel were illuminated using a collimated continuous wave laser beam with a diameter of 4 mm and wavelength of 785 nm. The same laser beam was used to take a holographic image and Raman spectrum of a pellet to identify the shape, size, and composition of material. Using the compact system, the morphological and chemical analysis of pellets in a large volume of water was performed. The reported method demonstrates the potential for noncontact continuous in situ monitoring of microplastics in water without collection and separation.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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    [Crossref]
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2020 (2)

T. Takahashi, S. Yoshino, Y. Takaya, T. Nozaki, K. Ohki, T. Ohki, T. Sakka, and B. Thornton, “Quantitative in situ mapping of elements in deep-sea hydrothermal vents using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 158, 103232 (2020).
[Crossref]

V. Bianco, P. Memmolo, P. Carcagn, F. Merola, M. Paturzo, C. Distante, and P. Ferraro, “Microplastic identification via holographic imaging and machine learning,” Adv. Intell. Syst. 2, 1900153 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

C. A. Choy, B. H. Robison, T. O. Gagne, B. Erwin, E. Firl, R. U. Halden, J. A. Hamilton, K. Katija, S. E. Lisin, C. Rolsky, and K. S. Van Houtan, “The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kniggendorf, C. Wetzel, and B. Roth, “Microplastics detection in streaming tap water with Raman spectroscopy,” Sensors 19, 12–14 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, V. Bianco, M. Paturzo, M. Mazzocchi, and P. Ferraro, “Searching and identifying microplastics in marine environment by digital holography,” Europ. Phys. J. Plus 133, 350 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

K. K. La Daana, R. Officer, O. Lyashevska, R. C. Thompson, and I. O’Connor, “Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the atlantic ocean,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 115, 307–314 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Galloway and C. Lexis, “Marine microplastics,” Curr. Biol. 27, R445–R446 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Foster, J. Storey, and M. Zentile, “Spatial-heterodyne spectrometer for transmission-Raman observations,” Opt. Express 25,1598–1604 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Strange, K. C. Paul, and S. M. Angel, “Transmission Raman measurements using a spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 250–257 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. Tanaka and H. Takada, “Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34351 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Ribeiro Claro, M. Nolasco, and C. Araújo, “Characterization of microplastics by Raman spectroscopy,” Compreh. Anal. Chem. 75, 119–151 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Duis and A. Coors, “Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects,” Environ. Sci. Euro. 28, 2 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Reisser, B. Slat, K. Noble, K. Du Plessis, M. Epp, M. Proietti, J. De Sonneville, T. Becker, and C. Pattiaratchi, “The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre,” Biogeosciences 12, 1249–1256 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Enders, R. Lenz, C. A. Stedmon, and T. G. Nielsen, “Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ≥10 µm in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100, 70–81 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. R. A. Lima, M. Barletta, and M. F. Costa, “Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary,” Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 165, 213–225 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Neves, P. Sobral, J. L. Ferreira, and T. Pereira, “Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 101, 119–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Thornton, T. Takahashi, T. Sato, T. Sakka, A. Tamura, A. Matsumoto, T. Nozaki, T. Ohki, and K. Ohki, “Development of a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for in situ multi-element chemical analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 95, 20–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. J. Lindsay, A. Yamaguchi, M. M. Grossmann, J. Nishikawa, A. Sabates, V. Fuentes, M. Hall, K. Sunahara, and H. Yamamoto, “Vertical profiles of marine particulates: a step towards global scale comparisons using an Autonomous Visual Plankton Recorder,” Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. 61, 72–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. M. Burns and J. Watson, “Robust particle outline extraction and its application to digital in-line holograms of marine organisms,” Opt. Eng. 53, 112212 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. Akhter, G. Min, J. W. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “A comparative study of reconstruction algorithms in digital holography,” Optik 124, 2955–2958 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Wright, R. C. Thompson, and T. S. Galloway, “The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms; a review,” Environ. Pollut. 178, 483–492 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

V. Hidalgo-Ruz, L. Gutow, R. C. Thompson, and M. Thiel, “Microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the methods used for identification and quantification,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 3060–3075 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kukulka, G. Proskurowski, S. Morét-Ferguson, D. W. Meyer, and K. L. Law, “The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L07601 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, W. J. Kirkwood, P. M. Walz, E. T. Peltzer, and P. G. Brewer, “A review of advances in deep-ocean Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Buckley and P. Matousek, “Recent advances in the application of transmission Raman spectroscopy to pharmaceutical analysis,”J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 55, 645–652 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Cole, P. Lindeque, C. Halsband, and T. S. Galloway, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2588–2597 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Breier, C. R. German, and S. N. White, “Mineral phase analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal particulates by a Raman spectroscopy expert algorithm: Toward autonomous in situ experimentation and exploration,” Geochem., Geophys. Geosyst. 10, 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. Sun, P. W. Benzie, N. Burns, D. C. Hendry, M. A. Player, and J. Watson, “Underwater digital holography for studies of marine plankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 1789–1806 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Stone and P. Matousek, “Advanced transmission Raman spectroscopy: a promising tool for breast disease diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 68, 4424–4430 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Moore, “Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat,” Environ. Res. 108, 131–139 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Hester, R. Dunk, P. Walz, E. Peltzer, E. Sloan, and P. Brewer, “Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth,” Fluid Phase Equilib. 261, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Matousek and A. Parker, “Non-invasive probing of pharmaceutical capsules using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 563–567 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

N. J. Cherepy, T. H. Shen, A. P. Esposito, and T. M. Tillotson, “Characterization of an effective cleaning procedure for aluminum alloys: surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and zeta potential analysis,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 80–86 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. C. Thompson, Y. Olsen, R. P. Mitchell, A. Davis, S. J. Rowland, A. W. G. John, D. McGonigle, and A. E. Russell, “Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic?” Science 304, 838 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. B. Owen and A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187 (2000).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. Watson and P. W. Britton, “Preliminary results on underwater holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 15, 215–216 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, and P. R. Betzer, “In situ holographic measurements of the sizes and settling rates of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5681–5685 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. L. Carder, “A holographic micro-velocimeter for use in studying ocean particle dynamics,” Proc. SPIE 160, 63–66 (1978).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

H. A. Willis, V. J. Zichy, and P. J. Hendra, “The laser-Raman and infra-red spectra of poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 10, 737–746 (1969).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

J. R. Ferraro, J. S. Ziomek, and G. Mack, “Raman spectra of solids,” Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802–814 (1961).
[Crossref]

Akhter, N.

N. Akhter, G. Min, J. W. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “A comparative study of reconstruction algorithms in digital holography,” Optik 124, 2955–2958 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alexander, S.

J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
[Crossref]

Angel, S. M.

Araújo, C.

P. Ribeiro Claro, M. Nolasco, and C. Araújo, “Characterization of microplastics by Raman spectroscopy,” Compreh. Anal. Chem. 75, 119–151 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arthur, C.

J. Masura, J. Baker, G. Foster, C. Arthur, and C. Herring, “Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments,” Tech. Rep. NOS-OR&R-48, Carlie Herring, Ed. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Division, 2015).

Baker, J.

J. Masura, J. Baker, G. Foster, C. Arthur, and C. Herring, “Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments,” Tech. Rep. NOS-OR&R-48, Carlie Herring, Ed. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Division, 2015).

Barletta, M.

A. R. A. Lima, M. Barletta, and M. F. Costa, “Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary,” Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 165, 213–225 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A.

C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, T.

J. Reisser, B. Slat, K. Noble, K. Du Plessis, M. Epp, M. Proietti, J. De Sonneville, T. Becker, and C. Pattiaratchi, “The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre,” Biogeosciences 12, 1249–1256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benzie, P. W.

H. Sun, P. W. Benzie, N. Burns, D. C. Hendry, M. A. Player, and J. Watson, “Underwater digital holography for studies of marine plankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 1789–1806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Betzer, P. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, and P. R. Betzer, “In situ holographic measurements of the sizes and settling rates of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5681–5685 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bianco, V.

V. Bianco, P. Memmolo, P. Carcagn, F. Merola, M. Paturzo, C. Distante, and P. Ferraro, “Microplastic identification via holographic imaging and machine learning,” Adv. Intell. Syst. 2, 1900153 (2020).
[Crossref]

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, V. Bianco, M. Paturzo, M. Mazzocchi, and P. Ferraro, “Searching and identifying microplastics in marine environment by digital holography,” Europ. Phys. J. Plus 133, 350 (2018).
[Crossref]

Breier, J. A.

J. A. Breier, C. R. German, and S. N. White, “Mineral phase analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal particulates by a Raman spectroscopy expert algorithm: Toward autonomous in situ experimentation and exploration,” Geochem., Geophys. Geosyst. 10, 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brewer, P.

K. Hester, R. Dunk, P. Walz, E. Peltzer, E. Sloan, and P. Brewer, “Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth,” Fluid Phase Equilib. 261, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brewer, P. G.

Britton, P. W.

J. Watson and P. W. Britton, “Preliminary results on underwater holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 15, 215–216 (1983).
[Crossref]

Buckley, K.

K. Buckley and P. Matousek, “Recent advances in the application of transmission Raman spectroscopy to pharmaceutical analysis,”J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 55, 645–652 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burns, N.

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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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V. Bianco, P. Memmolo, P. Carcagn, F. Merola, M. Paturzo, C. Distante, and P. Ferraro, “Microplastic identification via holographic imaging and machine learning,” Adv. Intell. Syst. 2, 1900153 (2020).
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N. J. Cherepy, T. H. Shen, A. P. Esposito, and T. M. Tillotson, “Characterization of an effective cleaning procedure for aluminum alloys: surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and zeta potential analysis,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 80–86 (2005).
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J. R. Ferraro, J. S. Ziomek, and G. Mack, “Raman spectra of solids,” Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802–814 (1961).
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V. Bianco, P. Memmolo, P. Carcagn, F. Merola, M. Paturzo, C. Distante, and P. Ferraro, “Microplastic identification via holographic imaging and machine learning,” Adv. Intell. Syst. 2, 1900153 (2020).
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Foster, G.

J. Masura, J. Baker, G. Foster, C. Arthur, and C. Herring, “Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments,” Tech. Rep. NOS-OR&R-48, Carlie Herring, Ed. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Division, 2015).

Foster, M.

Fuentes, V.

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M. Cole, P. Lindeque, C. Halsband, and T. S. Galloway, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2588–2597 (2011).
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J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

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J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

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J. Masura, J. Baker, G. Foster, C. Arthur, and C. Herring, “Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments,” Tech. Rep. NOS-OR&R-48, Carlie Herring, Ed. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Division, 2015).

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K. Hester, R. Dunk, P. Walz, E. Peltzer, E. Sloan, and P. Brewer, “Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth,” Fluid Phase Equilib. 261, 396–406 (2007).
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V. Hidalgo-Ruz, L. Gutow, R. C. Thompson, and M. Thiel, “Microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the methods used for identification and quantification,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 3060–3075 (2012).
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J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
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R. C. Thompson, Y. Olsen, R. P. Mitchell, A. Davis, S. J. Rowland, A. W. G. John, D. McGonigle, and A. E. Russell, “Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic?” Science 304, 838 (2004).
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C. A. Choy, B. H. Robison, T. O. Gagne, B. Erwin, E. Firl, R. U. Halden, J. A. Hamilton, K. Katija, S. E. Lisin, C. Rolsky, and K. S. Van Houtan, “The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
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N. Akhter, G. Min, J. W. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “A comparative study of reconstruction algorithms in digital holography,” Optik 124, 2955–2958 (2013).
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K. K. La Daana, R. Officer, O. Lyashevska, R. C. Thompson, and I. O’Connor, “Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the atlantic ocean,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 115, 307–314 (2017).
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J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
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J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

Law, K. L.

T. Kukulka, G. Proskurowski, S. Morét-Ferguson, D. W. Meyer, and K. L. Law, “The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L07601 (2012).
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N. Akhter, G. Min, J. W. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “A comparative study of reconstruction algorithms in digital holography,” Optik 124, 2955–2958 (2013).
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K. Enders, R. Lenz, C. A. Stedmon, and T. G. Nielsen, “Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ≥10 µm in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100, 70–81 (2015).
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C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
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T. Galloway and C. Lexis, “Marine microplastics,” Curr. Biol. 27, R445–R446 (2017).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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A. R. A. Lima, M. Barletta, and M. F. Costa, “Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary,” Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 165, 213–225 (2015).
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M. Cole, P. Lindeque, C. Halsband, and T. S. Galloway, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2588–2597 (2011).
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D. J. Lindsay, A. Yamaguchi, M. M. Grossmann, J. Nishikawa, A. Sabates, V. Fuentes, M. Hall, K. Sunahara, and H. Yamamoto, “Vertical profiles of marine particulates: a step towards global scale comparisons using an Autonomous Visual Plankton Recorder,” Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. 61, 72–81 (2014).
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C. A. Choy, B. H. Robison, T. O. Gagne, B. Erwin, E. Firl, R. U. Halden, J. A. Hamilton, K. Katija, S. E. Lisin, C. Rolsky, and K. S. Van Houtan, “The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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K. K. La Daana, R. Officer, O. Lyashevska, R. C. Thompson, and I. O’Connor, “Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the atlantic ocean,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 115, 307–314 (2017).
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J. R. Ferraro, J. S. Ziomek, and G. Mack, “Raman spectra of solids,” Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802–814 (1961).
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J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
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T. Takahashi, S. Yoshino, Y. Takaya, T. Nozaki, K. Ohki, T. Ohki, T. Sakka, and B. Thornton, “Quantitative in situ mapping of elements in deep-sea hydrothermal vents using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 158, 103232 (2020).
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Tipping, K.

J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

Trucco, A.

J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

Van Houtan, K. S.

C. A. Choy, B. H. Robison, T. O. Gagne, B. Erwin, E. Firl, R. U. Halden, J. A. Hamilton, K. Katija, S. E. Lisin, C. Rolsky, and K. S. Van Houtan, “The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
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Walz, P.

K. Hester, R. Dunk, P. Walz, E. Peltzer, E. Sloan, and P. Brewer, “Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth,” Fluid Phase Equilib. 261, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Walz, P. M.

Wang, B.

X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, J.

N. M. Burns and J. Watson, “Robust particle outline extraction and its application to digital in-line holograms of marine organisms,” Opt. Eng. 53, 112212 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, P. W. Benzie, N. Burns, D. C. Hendry, M. A. Player, and J. Watson, “Underwater digital holography for studies of marine plankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 1789–1806 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Watson and P. W. Britton, “Preliminary results on underwater holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 15, 215–216 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

Wetzel, C.

A. K. Kniggendorf, C. Wetzel, and B. Roth, “Microplastics detection in streaming tap water with Raman spectroscopy,” Sensors 19, 12–14 (2019).
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C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
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White, S. N.

J. A. Breier, C. R. German, and S. N. White, “Mineral phase analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal particulates by a Raman spectroscopy expert algorithm: Toward autonomous in situ experimentation and exploration,” Geochem., Geophys. Geosyst. 10, 1–12 (2009).
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Willis, H. A.

H. A. Willis, V. J. Zichy, and P. J. Hendra, “The laser-Raman and infra-red spectra of poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 10, 737–746 (1969).
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S. L. Wright, R. C. Thompson, and T. S. Galloway, “The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms; a review,” Environ. Pollut. 178, 483–492 (2013).
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D. J. Lindsay, A. Yamaguchi, M. M. Grossmann, J. Nishikawa, A. Sabates, V. Fuentes, M. Hall, K. Sunahara, and H. Yamamoto, “Vertical profiles of marine particulates: a step towards global scale comparisons using an Autonomous Visual Plankton Recorder,” Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. 61, 72–81 (2014).
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D. J. Lindsay, A. Yamaguchi, M. M. Grossmann, J. Nishikawa, A. Sabates, V. Fuentes, M. Hall, K. Sunahara, and H. Yamamoto, “Vertical profiles of marine particulates: a step towards global scale comparisons using an Autonomous Visual Plankton Recorder,” Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. 61, 72–81 (2014).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ye, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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Yoshino, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Yoshino, Y. Takaya, T. Nozaki, K. Ohki, T. Ohki, T. Sakka, and B. Thornton, “Quantitative in situ mapping of elements in deep-sea hydrothermal vents using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 158, 103232 (2020).
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Zentile, M.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
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X. Zhang, W. J. Kirkwood, P. M. Walz, E. T. Peltzer, and P. G. Brewer, “A review of advances in deep-ocean Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 237–249 (2012).
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X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

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H. A. Willis, V. J. Zichy, and P. J. Hendra, “The laser-Raman and infra-red spectra of poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 10, 737–746 (1969).
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Zielinski, O.

C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. R. Ferraro, J. S. Ziomek, and G. Mack, “Raman spectra of solids,” Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802–814 (1961).
[Crossref]

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R. B. Owen and A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187 (2000).
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Adv. Intell. Syst. (1)

V. Bianco, P. Memmolo, P. Carcagn, F. Merola, M. Paturzo, C. Distante, and P. Ferraro, “Microplastic identification via holographic imaging and machine learning,” Adv. Intell. Syst. 2, 1900153 (2020).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Biogeosciences (1)

J. Reisser, B. Slat, K. Noble, K. Du Plessis, M. Epp, M. Proietti, J. De Sonneville, T. Becker, and C. Pattiaratchi, “The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre,” Biogeosciences 12, 1249–1256 (2015).
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Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. (1)

D. J. Lindsay, A. Yamaguchi, M. M. Grossmann, J. Nishikawa, A. Sabates, V. Fuentes, M. Hall, K. Sunahara, and H. Yamamoto, “Vertical profiles of marine particulates: a step towards global scale comparisons using an Autonomous Visual Plankton Recorder,” Bull. Plankton Soc. Jpn. 61, 72–81 (2014).
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Cancer Res. (1)

N. Stone and P. Matousek, “Advanced transmission Raman spectroscopy: a promising tool for breast disease diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 68, 4424–4430 (2008).
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Compreh. Anal. Chem. (1)

P. Ribeiro Claro, M. Nolasco, and C. Araújo, “Characterization of microplastics by Raman spectroscopy,” Compreh. Anal. Chem. 75, 119–151 (2016).
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Curr. Biol. (1)

T. Galloway and C. Lexis, “Marine microplastics,” Curr. Biol. 27, R445–R446 (2017).
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Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (3)

B. Thornton, T. Takahashi, T. Sato, T. Sakka, A. Tamura, A. Matsumoto, T. Nozaki, T. Ohki, and K. Ohki, “Development of a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for in situ multi-element chemical analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 95, 20–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Yoshino, Y. Takaya, T. Nozaki, K. Ohki, T. Ohki, T. Sakka, and B. Thornton, “Quantitative in situ mapping of elements in deep-sea hydrothermal vents using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 158, 103232 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Du, R. Zheng, Z. Luan, F. Qi, K. Cheng, B. Wang, W. Ye, X. Liu, C. Lian, C. Chen, J. Guo, Y. Li, and J. Yan, “Development of a new deep-sea hybrid Raman insertion probe and its application to the geochemistry of hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluid,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 123, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Environ. Pollut. (1)

S. L. Wright, R. C. Thompson, and T. S. Galloway, “The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms; a review,” Environ. Pollut. 178, 483–492 (2013).
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Environ. Res. (1)

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Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

V. Hidalgo-Ruz, L. Gutow, R. C. Thompson, and M. Thiel, “Microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the methods used for identification and quantification,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 3060–3075 (2012).
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Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. (1)

A. R. A. Lima, M. Barletta, and M. F. Costa, “Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary,” Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 165, 213–225 (2015).
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Europ. Phys. J. Plus (1)

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, V. Bianco, M. Paturzo, M. Mazzocchi, and P. Ferraro, “Searching and identifying microplastics in marine environment by digital holography,” Europ. Phys. J. Plus 133, 350 (2018).
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Fluid Phase Equilib. (1)

K. Hester, R. Dunk, P. Walz, E. Peltzer, E. Sloan, and P. Brewer, “Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth,” Fluid Phase Equilib. 261, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geochem., Geophys. Geosyst. (1)

J. A. Breier, C. R. German, and S. N. White, “Mineral phase analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal particulates by a Raman spectroscopy expert algorithm: Toward autonomous in situ experimentation and exploration,” Geochem., Geophys. Geosyst. 10, 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

T. Kukulka, G. Proskurowski, S. Morét-Ferguson, D. W. Meyer, and K. L. Law, “The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L07601 (2012).
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J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

N. J. Cherepy, T. H. Shen, A. P. Esposito, and T. M. Tillotson, “Characterization of an effective cleaning procedure for aluminum alloys: surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and zeta potential analysis,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 80–86 (2005).
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J. Geophys. Res. (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, and P. R. Betzer, “In situ holographic measurements of the sizes and settling rates of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5681–5685 (1982).
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J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. (1)

K. Buckley and P. Matousek, “Recent advances in the application of transmission Raman spectroscopy to pharmaceutical analysis,”J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 55, 645–652 (2011).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

P. Matousek and A. Parker, “Non-invasive probing of pharmaceutical capsules using transmission Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 563–567 (2007).
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Mar. Pollut. Bull. (4)

K. Enders, R. Lenz, C. A. Stedmon, and T. G. Nielsen, “Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ≥10 µm in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100, 70–81 (2015).
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D. Neves, P. Sobral, J. L. Ferreira, and T. Pereira, “Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 101, 119–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ocean Sci. (1)

C. Moore, A. Barnard, P. Fietzek, M. R. Lewis, H. M. Sosik, S. White, and O. Zielinski, “Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research,” Ocean Sci. 5, 661–684 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. B. Owen and A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. M. Burns and J. Watson, “Robust particle outline extraction and its application to digital in-line holograms of marine organisms,” Opt. Eng. 53, 112212 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Watson and P. W. Britton, “Preliminary results on underwater holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 15, 215–216 (1983).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

N. Akhter, G. Min, J. W. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “A comparative study of reconstruction algorithms in digital holography,” Optik 124, 2955–2958 (2013).
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Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

H. Sun, P. W. Benzie, N. Burns, D. C. Hendry, M. A. Player, and J. Watson, “Underwater digital holography for studies of marine plankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 1789–1806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polymer (1)

H. A. Willis, V. J. Zichy, and P. J. Hendra, “The laser-Raman and infra-red spectra of poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 10, 737–746 (1969).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

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K. Tanaka and H. Takada, “Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34351 (2016).
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C. A. Choy, B. H. Robison, T. O. Gagne, B. Erwin, E. Firl, R. U. Halden, J. A. Hamilton, K. Katija, S. E. Lisin, C. Rolsky, and K. S. Van Houtan, “The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column,” Sci. Rep. 9, 1–9 (2019).
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Science (1)

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Sensors (1)

A. K. Kniggendorf, C. Wetzel, and B. Roth, “Microplastics detection in streaming tap water with Raman spectroscopy,” Sensors 19, 12–14 (2019).
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Spectrochim. Acta (1)

J. R. Ferraro, J. S. Ziomek, and G. Mack, “Raman spectra of solids,” Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802–814 (1961).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

J. Watson, S. Alexander, G. Craig, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, J. M. Marteau, H. Nareid, M. A. Player, K. Saw, and K. Tipping, “Simultaneous in-line and off-axis subsea holographic recording of plankton and other marine particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Watson, S. Alexander, V. Chavidan, G. Craig, A. Diard, G. L. Foresti, S. Gentili, D. C. Hendry, P. R. Hobson, R. S. Lampitt, H. Nareid, J. J. Nebrensky, A. Pescetto, G. G. Pieroni, M. A. Player, K. Saw, S. Serpico, K. Tipping, and A. Trucco, “A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR),” in Oceans Conference (IEEE) (2003), pp. 830–837.

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J. Masura, J. Baker, G. Foster, C. Arthur, and C. Herring, “Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments,” Tech. Rep. NOS-OR&R-48, Carlie Herring, Ed. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Division, 2015).

“HoloSea submersible microscope,” 4Deep, http://4-deep.com/products/submersible-microscope/ .

“LISST-Holo2,”Sequoia Scientific Inc., https://www.sequoiasci.com/product/lisst-holo/ .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup: Col, collimator; BP, bandpass filter; SW, sapphire window; DBS, dichroic beamsplitter; AF, attenuation filter; and LP, longpass filter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Raw and (b) reconstructed images of a PS pellet. The beam diameter for illumination was 7.5 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reconstructed holographic images of (a) PS and (b) PMMA pellets.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Raman spectra of (a) PS and (b) PMMA pellets. Raman spectra taken using the setup are shown in black and reference Raman spectra taken for the same samples in air using a focused beam are shown in red.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Raman Peaks Seen in Spectraa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of Specifications for In Situ Holographic and Raman Analyzers

Metrics