Abstract

The Laser Retroreflector Array for Lunar Landers (LRALL) is a small optical instrument designed to provide a target for precision laser ranging from a spacecraft in lunar orbit, enabling geolocation of the lander and its instrument suite and establishing a fiducial maker on the lunar surface. Here we describe the optical performance of LRALL at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Individual corner cube reflectors (CCRs) within LRALL were tested for surface flatness and dihedral angle values. We also imaged the far-field diffraction patterns of individual CCRs as well as the entire retroreflector array over the range of possible incident angles to extract the optical cross section as a function of viewing angle. We also measured the optical properties of one of the CCRs over the lunar temperature range (100–380 K) and found no significant temperature-dependent variance. The test results show LRALL meets the design criteria and can be ranged to elevation angles above 30° with respect to the instrument base from an orbital laser altimeter such as the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. This work summarizes the test data and serves as a guide for future laser ranging to these retroreflector arrays.

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (2)

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Magruder and K. M. Brunt, “Performance analysis of airborne photon-counting lidar data in preparation for the ICESat-2 mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 56, 2911–2918 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. G. Williams and D. H. Boggs, “Tides on the Moon: Theory and determination of dissipation,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 689–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: The millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. W. Murphy and S. D. Goodrow, “Polarization and far-field diffraction patterns of total internal reflection corner cubes,” Appl. Opt. 52, 117–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. D. Goodrow and T. W. Murphy, “Effects of thermal gradients on total internal reflection corner cubes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8793–8799 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Sadovnikov and A. L. Sokolov, “Spatial polarization structure of radiation formed by a retroreflector with nonmetallized faces,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, D. H. Boggs, and J. T. Ratcliff, “Lunar laser ranging science: Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 67–71 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Khan, K. Mosegaard, J. G. Williams, and P. Lognonné, “Does the Moon possess a molten core? Probing the deep lunar interior using results from LLR and Lunar Prospector,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E09007 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aaron, E. C.

Adelberger, E. G.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alley, C. O.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnold, D. A.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bandfield, J. L.

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baran, R. T.

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Battat, J. B. R.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bender, P. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Berardi, S.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boggs, D. H.

J. G. Williams and D. H. Boggs, “Tides on the Moon: Theory and determination of dissipation,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 689–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, D. H. Boggs, and J. T. Ratcliff, “Lunar laser ranging science: Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 67–71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boni, A.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brunt, K. M.

L. A. Magruder and K. M. Brunt, “Performance analysis of airborne photon-counting lidar data in preparation for the ICESat-2 mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 56, 2911–2918 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cantone, C.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, N. H.

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ciocci, E.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Contessa, S.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cremons, D. R.

Crowell, J. M.

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

Currie, D. G.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Millimeter accuracy satellite laser ranging: A review,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Technology (American Geophysical Union, 1993), pp. 133–162.

Dell’Agnello, S.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delle Monache, G.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Delle Monache, G. O.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dickey, J. O.

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J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
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T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
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Lognonné, P.

A. Khan, K. Mosegaard, J. G. Williams, and P. Lognonné, “Does the Moon possess a molten core? Probing the deep lunar interior using results from LLR and Lunar Prospector,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E09007 (2004).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
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T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
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A. Khan, K. Mosegaard, J. G. Williams, and P. Lognonné, “Does the Moon possess a molten core? Probing the deep lunar interior using results from LLR and Lunar Prospector,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E09007 (2004).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
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T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
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A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
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J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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[Crossref]

Salvatori, L.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samad, R. L.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, G.

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sciarretta, C.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seldon, M.

P. O. Minott, T. W. Zagwodzki, T. Varghese, and M. Seldon, Prelaunch Optical Characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2) (NASA, 1993).

Senshu, H.

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shelus, P. J.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shiina, T.

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, K.

T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Siegler, M. A.

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. E.

Sokolov, A. L.

M. A. Sadovnikov and A. L. Sokolov, “Spatial polarization structure of radiation formed by a retroreflector with nonmetallized faces,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Somawardhana, R. P.

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stubbs, C. W.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Swanson, H. E.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tauraso, R.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, G. J.

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

Terui, F.

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tibuzzi, M.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Turyshev, S. G.

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, D. H. Boggs, and J. T. Ratcliff, “Lunar laser ranging science: Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 67–71 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tuscano, P.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Uo, M.

T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Valencia, S. N.

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

Varghese, T.

P. O. Minott, T. W. Zagwodzki, T. Varghese, and M. Seldon, Prelaunch Optical Characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2) (NASA, 1993).

Vasavada, A. R.

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Veillet, C.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vittori, R.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wake, S. W.

Wang, S.

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watkins, R. N.

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

Whipple, A. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wiant, J. R.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wieczorek, M. A.

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. G.

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. G. Williams and D. H. Boggs, “Tides on the Moon: Theory and determination of dissipation,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 689–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, D. H. Boggs, and J. T. Ratcliff, “Lunar laser ranging science: Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 67–71 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Mosegaard, J. G. Williams, and P. Lognonné, “Does the Moon possess a molten core? Probing the deep lunar interior using results from LLR and Lunar Prospector,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E09007 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Williams, J.-P.

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wright, M. H.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wright, P. E.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamada, R.

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoder, C. F.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yoshimitsu, T.

T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zagwodzki, T. W.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. O. Minott, T. W. Zagwodzki, T. Varghese, and M. Seldon, Prelaunch Optical Characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2) (NASA, 1993).

Zerbini, S.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zuber, M. T.

Acta Astronaut. (1)

T. Yoshimitsu, J. Kawaguchi, T. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Uo, H. Morita, and K. Shirakawa, “Hayabusa—Final autonomous descent and landing based on target marker tracking,” Acta Astronaut. 65, 657–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Space Res. (3)

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, D. H. Boggs, and J. T. Ratcliff, “Lunar laser ranging science: Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 67–71 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. Delle Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, C. Mondaini, C. Lops, R. Vittori, M. Maiello, E. Flamini, E. Marchetti, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: The first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. Delle Monache, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Cantone, M. Garattini, A. Boni, M. Martini, C. Lops, N. Intaglietta, R. Tauraso, D. A. Arnold, M. R. Pearlman, G. Bianco, S. Zerbini, M. Maiello, S. Berardi, L. Porcelli, C. O. Alley, J. F. McGarry, C. Sciarretta, V. Luceri, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Creation of the new industry-standard space test of laser retroreflectors for the GNSS and LAGEOS,” Adv. Space Res. 47, 822–842 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Earth Space Sci. (1)

E. R. Jawin, S. N. Valencia, R. N. Watkins, J. M. Crowell, C. R. Neal, and G. Schmidt, “Lunar science for Landed Missions Workshop findings report,” Earth Space Sci. 6, 2–40 (2018).
[Crossref]

Exp. Astron. (1)

S. G. Turyshev, J. G. Williams, W. M. Folkner, G. M. Gutt, R. T. Baran, R. C. Hein, R. P. Somawardhana, J. A. Lipa, and S. Wang, “Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging,” Exp. Astron. 36, 105–135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

I. Matsuyama, F. Nimmo, J. T. Keane, N. H. Chan, G. J. Taylor, M. A. Wieczorek, W. S. Kiefer, and J. G. Williams, “GRAIL, LLR, and LOLA constraints on the interior structure of the Moon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 8365–8375 (2016).
[Crossref]

Icarus (1)

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, R. L. Samad, C. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

L. A. Magruder and K. M. Brunt, “Performance analysis of airborne photon-counting lidar data in preparation for the ICESat-2 mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 56, 2911–2918 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Planets (3)

J. G. Williams and D. H. Boggs, “Tides on the Moon: Theory and determination of dissipation,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 120, 689–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Mosegaard, J. G. Williams, and P. Lognonné, “Does the Moon possess a molten core? Probing the deep lunar interior using results from LLR and Lunar Prospector,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E09007 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Vasavada, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, P. O. Hayne, M. A. Siegler, J.-P. Williams, and D. A. Paige, “Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 117, E00H18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

M. A. Sadovnikov and A. L. Sokolov, “Spatial polarization structure of radiation formed by a retroreflector with nonmetallized faces,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107, 201–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: The millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: A continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

SIAM J. Optim. (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 208, 33–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. O. Minott, Design of Retrodirector Arrays for Laser Ranging of Satellites (NASA, 1974).

J. J. Degnan, “Millimeter accuracy satellite laser ranging: A review,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Technology (American Geophysical Union, 1993), pp. 133–162.

P. O. Minott, T. W. Zagwodzki, T. Varghese, and M. Seldon, Prelaunch Optical Characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2) (NASA, 1993).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. LRALL. (a) Array with eight metal-coated CCRs. (b) Array with eight TIR CCRs. (c) Illustration showing LRALL geometry and optical reference point. CCR illustration is not to scale. CG, center of gravity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. DAE measurements of CCRs for a representative LRALL instrument. Angles 1, 2, and 3, corresponding to the intersections of the three prism facets, were designated prior to test and held consistent throughout testing.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured retroreflecting properties of a TIR CCR over the expected lunar surface temperature range. Angles 1, 2, and 3, corresponding to the intersections of the three facets, were designated prior to test and held consistent throughout testing.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. FFDP optical test setup.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. FFDPs of individual CCRs. The patterns from (a) and (b) the metal-coated and (c) and (d) TIR CCRs were obtained under uniform illumination with collimated (a) and (c) 532 nm and (b) and (d) 1064 nm laser light. The axes correspond to beam deviation from the source as measured on the calibrated detector. The color scales correspond to OCS and are given by the scales to the right of each frame.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Normalized peak OCS of metal-coated and TIR CCRs as a function of incident angle at 1064 nm. Normalized peak OCS is defined as the OCS returned to the light source normalized to the OCS at normal incidence for each type of CCR.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Polarization dependence of far-field patterns from TIR CCRs. Far-field patterns were obtained from illumination at (a)–(c) 532 nm (outlined in green) and (d)–(f) 1064 nm (outlined in red). The frame axes correspond to beam deviation in µrad and are the same for all images. (insets) The polarization axes for the three polarizations tested (black arrows) with respect to the CCR. Edges of the facets of the CCR are shown in red. The color scale corresponds to OCS with warmer colors denoting higher OCS, and cooler colors denoting a lower OCS. The OCS scale for (a)–(c) is given by the colorbar next to (c) and the scale for (d)–(f) is given by the colorbar next to (f).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. LRA schematic describing angle terminology overlaid on a top-down view of the LRA.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Montage of FFDPs from LRALL (TIR CCRs) in equirectangular projection. The color scale is shown in the upper left and corresponds to relative OCS, with warmer colors corresponding to higher optical return. FFDPs were all obtained under identical imaging and illumination conditions.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Map of optical return from the retroreflector array as a function of incident angle for the LRA with metal-coated CCRs. (a) Map created from FFDPs using 532 nm illumination. (b) Map created from FFDPs using 1064 nm illumination. The color scales correspond to the LOOCS with warmer, lighter colors denoting higher optical return. Elevation and azimuth angles refer to terminology defined in Fig. 8. FFDPs were obtained in one-degree intervals in both elevation and azimuth for the ranges shown; each pixel of the map represents a distinct FFDP from which the LOOCS was extracted. The pixel-to-pixel variation is real and is a result of sampling a complex interference pattern.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Map of optical return from retroreflector array as a function of incident angle for the TIR version of LRALL. Following the conventions of Fig. 10, (a) and (b) correspond to 532 and 1064 nm, respectively. The pixel-to-pixel variation is real and is a result of sampling a complex interference pattern.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Azimuthally averaged optical performance of LRALL as a function of elevation angle. The dark blue and dark red lines denote the azimuthal average value for each elevation, whereas the light blue and light red shaded regions denote the $1 \sigma$ variance at each elevation from the population of all azimuth angles.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Best-fit functions of the two-Gaussian model. (a) Measurements and model fit to the azimuthal-averaged LOOCS as a function of elevation angle for the TIR version of LRALL. (b) Residuals from the fitting process.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Reflectance spectrum of LRALL CCR. Reflectance is shown normalized to the measured value at 1064 nm.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Pulsed laser waveforms retroreflected from LRALL. The colored circles correspond to the waveforms measured at the three retroreflector array angles as well as a reference mirror waveform. The black lines correspond to Gaussian fits to the measured waveforms, with the Gaussian rms width listed above each waveform. The given time is relative to the start of the Cube 2 normal pulse, and the waveforms are offset vertically for clarity. The gray lines denote the centroid positions of the Cube 2 and Cube 3 Gaussian fits. (inset) A schematic of the array showing the array region that was closest to normal incidence for the three measurements.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. LRALL Instrument Parameters

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Table 2. Optical Test Results from FFDPs of Individual CCRsa

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Table 3. Fitting Parameters for Two-Gaussian Model from Azimuthal-Averaged Data from TIR Retroreflector Array

Equations (3)

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σ = ρ A 2 4 π λ 2 ,
η = [ 2 cos ( θ i ) π ] 2 { sin 1 [ 1 2 tan 2 ( sin 1 ( sin ( θ i ) n ) ) ] 2 tan [ sin 1 ( sin ( θ i ) n ) ] } 2 .
O C S ( λ , e l . ) = B i , λ e ( e l . C i , λ ) 2 2 σ i , λ 2 + B o , λ e ( e l . C o , λ ) 2 2 σ o , λ 2 ,

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