Abstract

A woofer–tweeter deformable mirror (DM) driven by combined actuators with a piezoelectric unimorph and stack for astronomical applications is proposed. The piezoelectric unimorph “tweeter” part, made of a 200-μm-thick lead zirconate titanate film and 200-μm-thick silicon, has 234 separate elements for high-order correction. It is magnetically jointed with a seven-element “woofer” piezo-stack array, which is for low-order correction. The combined DM was fabricated and experimentally evaluated, showing a high resonant frequency near 1 kHz. The piezo-stack array together with the unimorph actuators enable the DM to produce wavefronts with RMS residue errors less than 20 nm. Experimental results indicate that the woofer–tweeter DM has the capability to compensate for the first 35 terms of Zernike aberrations with normalized RMS wavefront errors less than 20%. The woofer–tweeter DM has higher bandwidth than a conventional unimorph DM as well as simple structure, low cost, and good scalability, offering a potential alternative for large-aperture astronomical applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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