Abstract

We present the development of a compact f/7.3 (D=35mm) three-mirror reflective telescope for the atmospheric-research microsatellite Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography Spectroscopy (MATS). The telescope design was driven by the end users’ need for a reflective wide-field (5.67°×0.91°) optic with high stray light rejection and six detection channels with separate image sensors, operating at wavelengths 270–772 nm. For the first time, a design method for wide-field off-axis telescopes—in which linear astigmatism is eliminated—was applied and tested in practice. Single-point diamond turning was used to produce two sets of 37–110 mm large free-form aluminum mirrors with surface figure errors and roughness values of 34–62 nm (RMS)/193–497 nm (PV) and 2.8–3.5 nm (RMS), respectively. A method that combines precise machining and geometry measurements (using a coordinate measuring machine) was employed to fabricate an aluminum structure to accurately position the mirrors without the need for manual alignment. The telescope was tested with a network of plate beamsplitters and filters, which define the spectral selection for the six detection channels. Imaging performance measurements were carried out using a reflective off-axis collimator, which projects imaging targets at infinite focus. A modulation transfer function (MTF) value of 0.45 at 20 lp/mm was measured at 760nm (diffraction limit: 0.85) using a slanted edge target. By modeling the measured mirror surfaces in optical design software, a reoptimization of the mirror positions could be performed and an improved MTF of 0.75 at 20 lp/mm was predicted. The results demonstrate design- and building methods that can be utilized to make off-axis telescopes for a vast range of applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Gong, and D.-M. Ma, “Design and optimization for main support structure of a large-area off-axis three-mirror space camera,” Appl. Opt. 56, 1094–1100 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. P. Chrisp, B. Primeau, and M. A. Echter, “Imaging freeform optical systems designed with NURBS surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 55, 071208 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, “Linear astigmatism of confocal off-axis reflective imaging systems with n-conic mirrors and its elimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 852–859 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. A. Akmaev, “Whole atmosphere modeling: connecting terrestrial and space weather,” Rev. Geophys. 49, RG4004 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Ern, “Transparency of the atmosphere to short horizontal wavelength gravity waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. von Savigny, C. Robert, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, and M. Schwartz, “Satellite observations of the quasi 5-day wave in noctilucent clouds and mesopause temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24808 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Krebsbach and P. Preusse, “Spectral analysis of gravity wave activity in SABER temperature data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L03814 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Chang and A. Prata, “Geometrical theory of aberrations near the axis in classical off-axis reflecting telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2454–2464 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. G. Ungar, J. S. Pearlman, J. A. Mendenhall, and D. Reuter, “Overview of the earth observing one (EO-1) mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1149–1159 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 247–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. G. Mlynczak and D. S. Olander, “On the utility of the molecular oxygen dayglow emissions as proxies for middle atmospheric ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1377–1380 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. B. Johnson, “Wide field of view three-mirror telescopes having a common optical axis,” Opt. Eng. 27, 121046 (1988).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. Willstrop, “The Mersenne–Schmidt: a three-mirror survey telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 597–609 (1984).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Akmaev, R. A.

R. A. Akmaev, “Whole atmosphere modeling: connecting terrestrial and space weather,” Rev. Geophys. 49, RG4004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alexander, M. J.

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 247–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amiaux, J.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Arduini, S.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Atcheson, P. D.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, C. B.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Au, D.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Augueres, J.-L.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Baer, J. W.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blom, C.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bourassa, A.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bovensmann, H.

C. von Savigny, C. Robert, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, and M. Schwartz, “Satellite observations of the quasi 5-day wave in noctilucent clouds and mesopause temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brinchmann, J.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Bronowicki, A. J.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bujanda, E.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burrows, J. P.

C. von Savigny, C. Robert, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, and M. Schwartz, “Satellite observations of the quasi 5-day wave in noctilucent clouds and mesopause temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carli, B.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carlotti, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

Chrisp, M. P.

M. P. Chrisp, B. Primeau, and M. A. Echter, “Imaging freeform optical systems designed with NURBS surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 55, 071208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christensen, O. M.

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
[Crossref]

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Larsson, R. Lilja, J. Gumbel, O. M. Christensen, and M. Örth, “The MATS micro satellite mission—tomographic perspective on the mesosphere,” in 4s Symposium (ESA Conference Bureau, 2016), pp. 11070–11078.

Cohen, A.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cole, R.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Cropper, M.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Dabin, C.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Damm, C.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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Davies, I.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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de Vos, L.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
[Crossref]

Degenstein, D.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Dudhia, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Duvet, L.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Ealet, A.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

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M. P. Chrisp, B. Primeau, and M. A. Echter, “Imaging freeform optical systems designed with NURBS surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 55, 071208 (2016).
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P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Ern, “Transparency of the atmosphere to short horizontal wavelength gravity waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24104 (2008).
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H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Emrich, A.

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
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Endemann, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Eriksson, P.

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
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P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Ern, “Transparency of the atmosphere to short horizontal wavelength gravity waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24104 (2008).
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Feigl, T.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
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Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Fitzgerald Simmons, D. D.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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Flaud, J. M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Frisk, U.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 247–265 (2003).
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M. Gadsden and W. Schröder, Noctilucent Clouds (Springer, 1989), pp. 1–12.

Gattinger, R.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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Gebhardt, A.

R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[Crossref]

Gessner, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Giggel, V.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[Crossref]

Giono, G.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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Gliech, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
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Gong, X.

Grabarnik, S.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
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Gubbels, G.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gumbel, J.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
[Crossref]

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Larsson, R. Lilja, J. Gumbel, O. M. Christensen, and M. Örth, “The MATS micro satellite mission—tomographic perspective on the mesosphere,” in 4s Symposium (ESA Conference Bureau, 2016), pp. 11070–11078.

Hammar, A.

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
[Crossref]

Hanley, J.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
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Hardaway, L.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hultgren, K.

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, E.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivchenko, N.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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Jennings, D. E.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
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Kaiser, R. E. N.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
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Killeen, T. L.

V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
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Kinast, J.

R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirschstein, S.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
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Kleinert, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Koopman, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Krebsbach, M.

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Langen, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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Larsson, N.

N. Larsson, R. Lilja, J. Gumbel, O. M. Christensen, and M. Örth, “The MATS micro satellite mission—tomographic perspective on the mesosphere,” in 4s Symposium (ESA Conference Bureau, 2016), pp. 11070–11078.

Laureijs, R.

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

Lightsey, P. A.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lilja, R.

N. Larsson, R. Lilja, J. Gumbel, O. M. Christensen, and M. Örth, “The MATS micro satellite mission—tomographic perspective on the mesosphere,” in 4s Symposium (ESA Conference Bureau, 2016), pp. 11070–11078.

Limpasuvan, V.

V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Llewellyn, E.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, N.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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López-Puertas, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Löscher, H.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
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Lundquist, R.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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Lunsford, A.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
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Lynch, R.

J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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Ma, D.-M.

Maresi, L.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
[Crossref]

McDade, I.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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McMuldroch, S.

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
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Megner, L.

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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Mendenhall, J. A.

S. G. Ungar, J. S. Pearlman, J. A. Mendenhall, and D. Reuter, “Overview of the earth observing one (EO-1) mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1149–1159 (2003).
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H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
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R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
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Schwartz, M.

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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stake, J.

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
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R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
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R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
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D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
[Crossref]

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H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
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S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
[Crossref]

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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taccola, M.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
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R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
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S. G. Ungar, J. S. Pearlman, J. A. Mendenhall, and D. Reuter, “Overview of the earth observing one (EO-1) mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1149–1159 (2003).
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O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

Versluys, J.

S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
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C. von Savigny, C. Robert, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, and M. Schwartz, “Satellite observations of the quasi 5-day wave in noctilucent clouds and mesopause temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24808 (2007).
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V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
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Wei, L.

Wiensz, J.

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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Wu, D. L.

V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
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Wu, Q.

V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
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Zander, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel, “Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 1981–1999 (2015).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

E. Llewellyn, N. Lloyd, D. Degenstein, R. Gattinger, S. Petelina, A. Bourassa, J. Wiensz, E. Ivanov, I. McDade, and B. Solheim, “The OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft,” Can. J. Phys. 82, 411–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

C. von Savigny, C. Robert, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, and M. Schwartz, “Satellite observations of the quasi 5-day wave in noctilucent clouds and mesopause temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24808 (2007).
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V. Limpasuvan, D. L. Wu, M. J. Schwartz, J. W. Waters, Q. Wu, and T. L. Killeen, “The two-day wave in EOS MLS temperature and wind measurements during 2004–2005 winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17809 (2005).
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M. G. Mlynczak and D. S. Olander, “On the utility of the molecular oxygen dayglow emissions as proxies for middle atmospheric ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1377–1380 (1995).
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M. Krebsbach and P. Preusse, “Spectral analysis of gravity wave activity in SABER temperature data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L03814 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. G. Ungar, J. S. Pearlman, J. A. Mendenhall, and D. Reuter, “Overview of the earth observing one (EO-1) mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1149–1159 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Ern, “Transparency of the atmosphere to short horizontal wavelength gravity waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24104 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

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Opt. Eng. (2)

M. P. Chrisp, B. Primeau, and M. A. Echter, “Imaging freeform optical systems designed with NURBS surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 55, 071208 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (7)

A. Hammar, O. M. Christensen, W. Park, S. Pak, A. Emrich, and J. Stake, “Stray light suppression of a compact off-axis telescope for a satellite-borne instrument for atmospheric research,” Proc. SPIE 10815, 108150F (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Giono, G. Olentšenko, N. Ivchenko, O. M. Christensen, J. Gumbel, U. Frisk, A. Hammar, I. Davies, and L. Megner, “Characterisation of the analogue read-out chain for the CCDs onboard the mesospheric airglow/aerosol tomography and spectroscopy (MATS),” Proc. SPIE 10698, 106984Y (2018).
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R.-R. Rohloff, A. Gebhardt, V. Schönherr, S. Risse, J. Kinast, S. Scheiding, and T. Peschel, “A novel athermal approach for high-performance cryogenic metal optics,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394E (2010).
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S. Grabarnik, M. Taccola, L. Maresi, V. Moreau, L. de Vos, J. Versluys, and G. Gubbels, “Compact multispectral and hyperspectral imagers based on a wide field of view TMA,” Proc. SPIE 10565, 1056505 (2017).
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J. Nella, P. D. Atcheson, C. B. Atkinson, D. Au, A. J. Bronowicki, E. Bujanda, A. Cohen, D. Davies, P. A. Lightsey, R. Lynch, R. Lundquist, M. T. Menzel, M. Mohan, J. Pohner, P. Reynolds, H. Rivera, S. C. Texter, D. V. Shuckstes, D. D. Fitzgerald Simmons, R. C. Smith, P. C. Sullivan, D. D. Waldie, and R. Woods, “James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observatory architecture and performance,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 576–587 (2004).
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S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, C. Damm, T. Peschel, W. Stökl, T. Feigl, S. Kirschstein, R. E. N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Novel TMA telescope based on ultra precise metal mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701016 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Geophys. (2)

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 247–265 (2003).
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Space Sci. Rev. (1)

D. C. Reuter, S. A. Stern, J. Scherrer, D. E. Jennings, J. W. Baer, J. Hanley, L. Hardaway, A. Lunsford, S. McMuldroch, and J. Moore, “Ralph: a visible/infrared imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129–154 (2008).
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Other (4)

R. Laureijs, J. Amiaux, S. Arduini, J.-L. Augueres, J. Brinchmann, R. Cole, M. Cropper, C. Dabin, L. Duvet, and A. Ealet, “Euclid definition study report,” arXiv:1110.3193 (2011).

M. Gadsden and W. Schröder, Noctilucent Clouds (Springer, 1989), pp. 1–12.

N. Larsson, R. Lilja, J. Gumbel, O. M. Christensen, and M. Örth, “The MATS micro satellite mission—tomographic perspective on the mesosphere,” in 4s Symposium (ESA Conference Bureau, 2016), pp. 11070–11078.

OHB Sweden, “MATS/InnoSat,” 2019, http://www.ohb-sweden.se/space-missions/mats-innosat/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Structural model of MATS mounted on the InnoSat platform for vibration tests.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Limb telescope with the network of beamsplitters, filters, folding mirrors, and image sensors. Beamsplitters are shown in yellow/blue, broadband filters in red/orange, and narrowband filters in light blue.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Basic three-mirror off-axis design for the limb telescope. The optical-axis ray is shown in red.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Prototype freeform mirrors. From left to right: M1, M2, and M3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured surface errors of the flight mirrors (top row) and prototype mirrors (bottom row). From left to right: M1, M2, and M3.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. M1 and M3 breadboard/prototype mirrors fixed in the black-coated aluminum mounting structure. A cross section of a mounting point with spherical washers on each side of the mirror is shown at the bottom.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Limb instrument prototype in the optics test bench. The side cover was taken for the illustrative purposes in the left image. The dual-blade chopper used as shutter and a jig with micrometer stages used for focusing are also shown in the right image.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured MTF curves in the NIR (IR2) of the telescope breadboard at the center of its FoV. Transmission/reflection in the pellicle beamsplitter is compared to transmission through a 3 mm plate beamsplitter. The simulated MTF data was obtained using measured prototype mirror surfaces and was averaged over different field points across the FoV.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Image of a USAF 1951 test chart taken by the MATS breadboard telescope with an IR2 narrowband filter, a pellicle beamsplitter in the transmission mode, and a CCD image sensor with 13 μm pixels.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Point source measurement across the entire FoV of the limb instrument prototype. Note that the image size of each point source has been scaled up for illustrative purposes.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Simulated MTF curves for the IR2 channel of the limb telescope over the nominal FoV for flight mirrors with optimized alignment and prototype mirrors with nominal alignment. Vertical (tangential) and horizontal (sagittal) fields are indicated with solid and dashed lines, respectively.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Wavelength Bands ( λ ) and Vertical Resolution Requirements ( ν ) of the Limb Telescope, Where the Latter Are Given in Terms of Spatial Resolution, Where MTF = 0.5

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Table 2. Inter-Mirror Distances, Optical-Axis Ray Reflection Angles, and Mirror Magnifications of the Basic Telescope Design

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Table 3. Measured Surface Figure Error (PV/RMS) and Surface Roughness (PV/RMS) of SPDT Flight and Prototype Mirrors

Equations (2)

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( 1 + m 1 ) m 2 m 3 tan i 1 + ( 1 + m 2 ) m 3 tan i 2 + ( 1 + m 3 ) tan i 3 = 0.
z ( x , y ) = i = 1 45 A i E i ( x , y ) ,

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