Abstract

In this paper, we present a phase correlation imaging technique employing quantitative phase microscopy to study the migration properties of living cells. The phase correlation map relies on time-lapse quantitative phase stacks, which are achieved by single-shot quantitative phase imaging based on the transport of intensity equation. The phase correlation imaging maps can reveal tiny fluctuations in cellular optical path length and dynamic subdomains in living cells. We find that the morphology dynamics and intracellular mass transport rates are significantly different as cells exhibit different levels of migratory capabilities.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

2018 (5)

Y. Li, J. Di, C. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Zhong, K. Wang, T. Xi, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative phase microscopy for cellular dynamics based on transport of intensity equation,” Opt. Express 26, 586–593 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. J. Mudrak, P. S. Rana, and M. A. Model, “Calibrated brightfield-based imaging for measuring intracellular protein concentration,” Cytometry Part A 93, 297–304 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Di, Y. Li, K. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative and dynamic phase imaging of biological cells by the use of the digital holographic microscopy based on a beam displacer unit,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6900510 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Cao, W. Xiao, X. Wu, L. Sun, and F. Pan, “Quantitative observations on cytoskeleton changes of osteocytes at different cell parts using digital holographic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 72–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

V. L. Calin, M. Mihailescu, N. Mihale, A. V. Baluta, E. Kovacs, T. Savopol, and M. G. Moisescu, “Changes in optical properties of electroporated cells as revealed by digital holographic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2222–2234 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

E. Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, S. Monnier, G. Cappello, M. Le Berre, and M. Piel, “Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis,” J. Cell Biol. 211, 765–774 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Jung, K. Kim, H. Yu, K. Lee, S. Lee, S. Nahm, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Biomedical applications of holographic microspectroscopy [invited],” Appl. Opt. 53, G111–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, W. Qu, and A. Asundi, “Noninterferometric single-shot quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3538–3541 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Waller, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of intensity phase-amplitude imaging with higher order intensity derivatives,” Opt. Express 18, 12552–12560 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040503 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

U. Haupts, S. Maiti, P. Schwille, and W. W. Webb, “Dynamics of fluorescence fluctuations in green fluorescent protein observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13573–13578 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–698 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a Green’s function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1434–1441 (1983).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Arikkath, J.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asundi, A.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, W. Qu, and A. Asundi, “Noninterferometric single-shot quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3538–3541 (2013).
[Crossref]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040503 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baluta, A. V.

Barbastathis, G.

Barbul, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bashir, R.

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauwens, A.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benke, A.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Best-Popescu, C.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhaduri, B.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boss, D.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, S.

Calin, V. L.

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–698 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

Cappello, G.

E. Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, S. Monnier, G. Cappello, M. Le Berre, and M. Piel, “Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis,” J. Cell Biol. 211, 765–774 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chan, V.

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, W. Qu, and A. Asundi, “Noninterferometric single-shot quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3538–3541 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, B. M.

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cintora, P.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corydon, T. J.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dan, D.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040503 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Depeursinge, C.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Di, J.

Y. Li, J. Di, C. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Zhong, K. Wang, T. Xi, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative phase microscopy for cellular dynamics based on transport of intensity equation,” Opt. Express 26, 586–593 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Di, Y. Li, K. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative and dynamic phase imaging of biological cells by the use of the digital holographic microscopy based on a beam displacer unit,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6900510 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, H. F.

Elson, E.

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Emery, Y.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Engelmann, F.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040503 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gao, P.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gillette, M. U.

Gong, Q.

Grimm, D.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grosse, J.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haupts, U.

U. Haupts, S. Maiti, P. Schwille, and W. W. Webb, “Dynamics of fluorescence fluctuations in green fluorescent protein observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13573–13578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hilliger, A.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iyer, R.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jourdain, P.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, J.

Kandel, M.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

Karch, H.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ketelhut, S.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

Koppel, D. E.

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Korenstein, R.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kovacs, E.

Kuhn, J.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lam, V. K.

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lang, K.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Langehanenberg, P.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Le Berre, M.

E. Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, S. Monnier, G. Cappello, M. Le Berre, and M. Piel, “Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis,” J. Cell Biol. 211, 765–774 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Lei, M.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levine, A. J.

Li, J.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Di, Y. Li, K. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative and dynamic phase imaging of biological cells by the use of the digital holographic microscopy based on a beam displacer unit,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6900510 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, J. Di, C. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Zhong, K. Wang, T. Xi, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative phase microscopy for cellular dynamics based on transport of intensity equation,” Opt. Express 26, 586–593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, F.

Ma, C.

Ma, L.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

MacKintosh, F. C.

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Magistretti, P. J.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maiti, S.

U. Haupts, S. Maiti, P. Schwille, and W. W. Webb, “Dynamics of fluorescence fluctuations in green fluorescent protein observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13573–13578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mann, V.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marquet, P.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mihailescu, M.

Mihale, N.

Millet, L.

Mir, M.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. F. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref]

Model, M. A.

N. J. Mudrak, P. S. Rana, and M. A. Model, “Calibrated brightfield-based imaging for measuring intracellular protein concentration,” Cytometry Part A 93, 297–304 (2018).
[Crossref]

Moisescu, M. G.

Monnier, S.

E. Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, S. Monnier, G. Cappello, M. Le Berre, and M. Piel, “Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis,” J. Cell Biol. 211, 765–774 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moratal, C.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mudrak, N. J.

N. J. Mudrak, P. S. Rana, and M. A. Model, “Calibrated brightfield-based imaging for measuring intracellular protein concentration,” Cytometry Part A 93, 297–304 (2018).
[Crossref]

Muthing, J.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nahm, S.

Nehmetallah, G.

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. C.

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Niggemann, B.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pan, F.

Park, H.

Park, Y.

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavillon, N.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kuhn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophoton. 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref]

Piel, M.

E. Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, S. Monnier, G. Cappello, M. Le Berre, and M. Piel, “Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis,” J. Cell Biol. 211, 765–774 (2015).
[Crossref]

Popescu, G.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry Part A 91, 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. F. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040503 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prasanth, S.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qu, W.

Rajshekhar, G.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rana, P. S.

N. J. Mudrak, P. S. Rana, and M. A. Model, “Calibrated brightfield-based imaging for measuring intracellular protein concentration,” Cytometry Part A 93, 297–304 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rappaz, B.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry Part A 73, 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raub, C. B.

V. K. Lam, T. C. Nguyen, B. M. Chung, G. Nehmetallah, and C. B. Raub, “Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning,” Cytometry Part A 93, 334–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reseland, J. E.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J.

Roos, W. H.

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Savopol, T.

Schlessinger, J.

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Schwille, P.

U. Haupts, S. Maiti, P. Schwille, and W. W. Webb, “Dynamics of fluorescence fluctuations in green fluorescent protein observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13573–13578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shan, Y.

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, S.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strell, C.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

Sundaresan, A.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Teague, M. R.

M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a Green’s function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1434–1441 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tian, L.

Ullrich, O.

K. Lang, C. Strell, B. Niggemann, K. S. Zänker, A. Hilliger, F. Engelmann, and O. Ullrich, “Real-time video-microscopy of migrating immune cells in altered gravity during parabolic flights,” Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 63–69 (2010).
[Crossref]

Unarunotai, S.

van Loon, J.

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, A. Bauwens, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, P. Langehanenberg, J. Muthing, H. Karch, and G. von Bally, “Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vorselen, D.

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waller, L.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Y. Li, J. Di, C. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Zhong, K. Wang, T. Xi, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative phase microscopy for cellular dynamics based on transport of intensity equation,” Opt. Express 26, 586–593 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Di, Y. Li, K. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Quantitative and dynamic phase imaging of biological cells by the use of the digital holographic microscopy based on a beam displacer unit,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6900510 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, R. Iyer, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32702–32711 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, W.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Webb, W. W.

U. Haupts, S. Maiti, P. Schwille, and W. W. Webb, “Dynamics of fluorescence fluctuations in green fluorescent protein observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13573–13578 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Axelrod, D. E. Koppel, J. Schlessinger, E. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Mobility measurement by analysis of fluorescence photobleaching recovery kinetics,” Biophys. J. 16, 1055–1069 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wehland, M.

D. Grimm, J. Grosse, M. Wehland, V. Mann, J. E. Reseland, A. Sundaresan, and T. J. Corydon, “The impact of microgravity on bone in humans,” Bone 87, 44–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.

Wichmann, J.

Wickland, D.

B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir, and G. Popescu, “Cardiomyocyte imaging using real-time spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” PloS one 8, e56930 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winterhalder, M.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Wuite, G. J. L.

D. Vorselen, W. H. Roos, F. C. MacKintosh, G. J. L. Wuite, and J. van Loon, “The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells,” FASEB J. 28, 536–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xi, T.

Xia, L.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, W.

Xu, J.

Xu, M.

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D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
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D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

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D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Zumbusch, A.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
[Crossref]

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C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7, 7654–7674 (2017).
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D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116–1123 (2013).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup and beam tracing inside the module. D, diaphragm; BS, beam splitter; RR, retro reflector; M2, mirror 2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Overfocus intensity. (b) Underfocus intensity. (c) Recovered phase map. (d) Phase profile along the respective arrow shown in (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Flow chart of phase correlation processing.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Original retrieved time-lapse phase images. (b) Time-lapse phase images after edge detection and background offset. (c) Calculated phase correlation distribution using five frames in (b).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Quantitative phase images at the first, third, fifth, eighth, and tenth minute over a 10 min period measurement for cell A and cell B.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Typical variation of cell phase at cell body as calculated on cell A and B. (b) Relative variation of cellular phase computed on 10 cells. (c) Typical variation of cell width at cell body as calculated on cell A and B. (d) Relative variation of cellular width computed on 10 cells.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Typical variation of cell phase at cell process as calculated on cell A and B. (b) Relative variation of cellular phase computed on 10 cells. (c) Typical variation of cell width at cell process as calculated on cell A and B. (d) Relative variation of cellular width computed on 10 cells.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a), (b) Phase image and PCI map for cell A, respectively. (c), (d) Phase image and PCI map for cell B, respectively. (e), (f) Histogram of correlation values in frequency domain for cell A and B, respectively. The vertical red lines indicate the mean.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a)–(d) Phase images and corresponding correlation time map of osteoblastic cells of type A, respectively. (e)–(h) Phase images and corresponding correlation time map of osteoblastic cells of type B, respectively.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Diffusion coefficient for type A and type B of three independent samples; the three asterisks are ${P} \lt {0.001}$ .

Equations (4)

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φ ( x , y , t ) = 2 π λ O P L ( x , y , t ) .
f ( x , y , τ ) = Δ O P L ( x , y , t ) Δ O P L ( x , y , t + τ ) Δ O P L ( x , y , t ) 2 ,
Δ O P L ( x , y , t ) = O P L ( x , y , t ) O P L ( x , y , t ) t .
g ( x , y ) = τ ( x , y ) 2 f ( x , y , τ ) d τ f ( x , y , τ ) d τ .

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