Abstract

Depth-resolved flow cytometric observations have been used to determine the size distribution and refractive index (RI) of picoplankton throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Prochlorococcus frequently showed double size distribution peaks centered on ${0.75 \pm 0.25}$ and ${1.75 \pm 0.25}\,\,{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$; the smallest peak diameters were ${\le}{0.65}\,\,{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$ in the equatorial upwelling with larger cells (${\sim}{0.95}\,\,{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$) in the surface layers of the tropical gyres. Synechococcus was strongly monodispersed: the smallest (${\sim}{1.5}\,\,{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$) and largest cells (${\sim}{2.25{-}2.50}\,\,{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$) were encountered in the lowest and highest abundance regions, respectively. Typical RI for Prochlorococcus was found to be ${\sim}{1.06}$, whereas for Synechococcus surface RI varied between 1.04–1.08 at high and low abundances, respectively.

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References

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2018 (3)

J. Agagliate, R. Rottgers, M. S. Twardowski, and D. McKee, “Evaluation of a flow cytometry method to determine size and real refractive index distributions in natural marine particle populations,” Appl. Opt. 57, 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, G. Dall’Olmo, R. J. W. Brewin, G. A. Tarran, E. Boss, and A. Bricaud, “The open-ocean missing backscattering is in the structural complexity of particles,” Nat. Commun. 9, 5439 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Agagliate, R. Rottgers, K. Heymann, and D. McKee, “Estimation of suspended matter, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentrations from particle size and refractive index distributions,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2676 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Smyth, G. Quartly, T. Jackson, G. Tarran, M. Woodward, C. Harris, C. Gallienne, R. Thomas, R. Airs, D. Cummings, R. Brewin, V. Kitidis, J. Stephens, M. Zubkov, and A. Rees, “Determining Atlantic Ocean province contrasts and variations,” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 19–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. P. Rees, P. D. Nightingale, A. J. Poulton, T. J. Smyth, G. A. Tarran, and G. H. Tilstone, “The Atlantic Meridional transect programme (1995-2016),” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 3–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. W. Chandler, Y. J. Lin, P. J. Gainer, A. F. Post, Z. I. Johnson, and E. R. Zinser, “Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean’s surface mixed layer,” Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 8, 272–284 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Maranon, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6, 701–710 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Alvarez, A. Lopez-Urrutia, E. Nogueira, and S. Fraga, “How to effectively sample the plankton size spectrum? A case study using FlowCAM,” J. Plankton Res. 33, 1119–1133 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. H. Jakobsen and J. Carstensen, “FlowCAM: sizing cells and understanding the impact of size distributions on biovolume of planktonic community structure,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 65, 75–87 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. E. Widdicombe, D. Eloire, D. Harbour, R. P. Harris, and P. J. Somerfield, “Long-term phytoplankton community dynamics in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 32, 643–655 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Walther, N. Zimmerman, W. Moore, D. Parks, S. Meehan, I. Belitskaya, J. Pan, and L. Herzenberg, “Automatic clustering of flow cytometry data with density-based merging,” Adv. Bioinform. 2009, 686759 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, T. J. Thorsen, J. Su, J. M. Ge, and J. P. Huang, “Test of Mie-based single-scattering properties of non-spherical dust aerosols in radiative flux calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1640–1653 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8116–8131 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. A. Tarran, J. L. Heywood, and M. V. Zubkov, “Latitudinal changes in the standing stocks of eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 53, 1516–1529 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. R. Zinser, A. Coe, Z. I. Johnson, A. C. Martiny, N. J. Fuller, D. J. Scanlan, and S. W. Chisholm, “Prochlorococcus ecotype abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean as revealed by an improved quantitative PCR method,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 723–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, R. J. Olson, and M. D. DuRand, “Flow cytometric determination of size and complex refractive index for marine particles: comparison with independent and bulk estimates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 526–541 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae),” J. Phycology 38, 1132–1142 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Menden-Deuer and E. J. Lessard, “Carbon to volume relationships for dinoflagellates, diatoms, and other protist plankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 569–579 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

D. Stramski, “Refractive index of planktonic cells as a measure of cellular carbon and chlorophyll a content,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 46, 335–351 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Partensky, W. R. Hess, and D. Vaulot, “Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance,” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 106–127 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 degrees N to 50 degrees S,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 45, 1339–1355 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, “Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257–260 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

E. A. Laws, “Photosynthetic quotients, new production and net community production in the open ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 38, 143–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

D. Woitzik, J. Weckesser, and U. J. Jurgens, “Isolation and characterization of cell-wall components of the unicellular cyanobacterium synechococcus sp pcc 6307,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 619–627 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. G. Ackleson and R. W. Spinrad, “Size and refractive-index of individual marine particulates—a flow cytometric approach,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1270–1277 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer, “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone,” Nature 334, 340–343 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

J. B. Waterbury, J. M. Willey, D. G. Franks, F. W. Valois, and S. W. Watson, “A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility,” Science 230, 74 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “Chroococcoid cyanobacteria in the sea—ubiquitous and diverse phototropic biomass,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 928–935 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. B. Waterbury, S. W. Watson, R. R. L. Guillard, and L. E. Brand, “Widespread occurrence of a unicellular, marine, planktonic, cyanobacterium,” Nature 277, 293–294 (1979).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. C. Redfield, “The biological control of chemical factors in the environment,” Am. Sci. 46, 205–221 (1958).

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ackleson, S. G.

Agagliate, J.

J. Agagliate, R. Rottgers, K. Heymann, and D. McKee, “Estimation of suspended matter, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentrations from particle size and refractive index distributions,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2676 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Agagliate, R. Rottgers, M. S. Twardowski, and D. McKee, “Evaluation of a flow cytometry method to determine size and real refractive index distributions in natural marine particle populations,” Appl. Opt. 57, 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ahlgren, N. A.

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aiken, J.

Airs, R.

T. Smyth, G. Quartly, T. Jackson, G. Tarran, M. Woodward, C. Harris, C. Gallienne, R. Thomas, R. Airs, D. Cummings, R. Brewin, V. Kitidis, J. Stephens, M. Zubkov, and A. Rees, “Determining Atlantic Ocean province contrasts and variations,” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 19–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, E.

E. Alvarez, A. Lopez-Urrutia, E. Nogueira, and S. Fraga, “How to effectively sample the plankton size spectrum? A case study using FlowCAM,” J. Plankton Res. 33, 1119–1133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arellano, A.

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Arrigo, K. R.

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Maranon, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6, 701–710 (2013).
[Crossref]

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, The Index of Refraction of Seawater (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1976).

Balfoort, H. W.

H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
[Crossref]

Belitskaya, I.

G. Walther, N. Zimmerman, W. Moore, D. Parks, S. Meehan, I. Belitskaya, J. Pan, and L. Herzenberg, “Automatic clustering of flow cytometry data with density-based merging,” Adv. Bioinform. 2009, 686759 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berman, T.

H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
[Crossref]

Berman-Frank, I.

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Maranon, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6, 701–710 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernard, S.

A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bohren, C. F.

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J. B. Waterbury, J. M. Willey, D. G. Franks, F. W. Valois, and S. W. Watson, “A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility,” Science 230, 74 (1985).
[Crossref]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1957).

Varchmin, H.

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, “Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257–260 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vaulot, D.

F. Partensky, W. R. Hess, and D. Vaulot, “Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance,” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63, 106–127 (1999).

Walther, G.

G. Walther, N. Zimmerman, W. Moore, D. Parks, S. Meehan, I. Belitskaya, J. Pan, and L. Herzenberg, “Automatic clustering of flow cytometry data with density-based merging,” Adv. Bioinform. 2009, 686759 (2009).
[Crossref]

Waterbury, J. B.

S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer, “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone,” Nature 334, 340–343 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. B. Waterbury, J. M. Willey, D. G. Franks, F. W. Valois, and S. W. Watson, “A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility,” Science 230, 74 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. B. Waterbury, S. W. Watson, R. R. L. Guillard, and L. E. Brand, “Widespread occurrence of a unicellular, marine, planktonic, cyanobacterium,” Nature 277, 293–294 (1979).
[Crossref]

Watson, S. W.

J. B. Waterbury, J. M. Willey, D. G. Franks, F. W. Valois, and S. W. Watson, “A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility,” Science 230, 74 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. B. Waterbury, S. W. Watson, R. R. L. Guillard, and L. E. Brand, “Widespread occurrence of a unicellular, marine, planktonic, cyanobacterium,” Nature 277, 293–294 (1979).
[Crossref]

Webb, E. A.

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weckesser, J.

D. Woitzik, J. Weckesser, and U. J. Jurgens, “Isolation and characterization of cell-wall components of the unicellular cyanobacterium synechococcus sp pcc 6307,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 619–627 (1988).
[Crossref]

Welschmeyer, N. A.

S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer, “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone,” Nature 334, 340–343 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, A.

H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
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C. E. Widdicombe, D. Eloire, D. Harbour, R. P. Harris, and P. J. Somerfield, “Long-term phytoplankton community dynamics in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 32, 643–655 (2010).
[Crossref]

Willey, J. M.

J. B. Waterbury, J. M. Willey, D. G. Franks, F. W. Valois, and S. W. Watson, “A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility,” Science 230, 74 (1985).
[Crossref]

Woitzik, D.

D. Woitzik, J. Weckesser, and U. J. Jurgens, “Isolation and characterization of cell-wall components of the unicellular cyanobacterium synechococcus sp pcc 6307,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 619–627 (1988).
[Crossref]

Woodward, M.

T. Smyth, G. Quartly, T. Jackson, G. Tarran, M. Woodward, C. Harris, C. Gallienne, R. Thomas, R. Airs, D. Cummings, R. Brewin, V. Kitidis, J. Stephens, M. Zubkov, and A. Rees, “Determining Atlantic Ocean province contrasts and variations,” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 19–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

M. Ester, H.-P. Kriegel, J. Sander, and X. Xu, “A density-based algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases with noise,” in Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD-96) (AAAI, 1996), 226–231.

Zettler, E. R.

S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer, “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone,” Nature 334, 340–343 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zimmerman, N.

G. Walther, N. Zimmerman, W. Moore, D. Parks, S. Meehan, I. Belitskaya, J. Pan, and L. Herzenberg, “Automatic clustering of flow cytometry data with density-based merging,” Adv. Bioinform. 2009, 686759 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. W. Chandler, Y. J. Lin, P. J. Gainer, A. F. Post, Z. I. Johnson, and E. R. Zinser, “Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean’s surface mixed layer,” Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 8, 272–284 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. R. Zinser, A. Coe, Z. I. Johnson, A. C. Martiny, N. J. Fuller, D. J. Scanlan, and S. W. Chisholm, “Prochlorococcus ecotype abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean as revealed by an improved quantitative PCR method,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 723–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
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H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
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T. Smyth, G. Quartly, T. Jackson, G. Tarran, M. Woodward, C. Harris, C. Gallienne, R. Thomas, R. Airs, D. Cummings, R. Brewin, V. Kitidis, J. Stephens, M. Zubkov, and A. Rees, “Determining Atlantic Ocean province contrasts and variations,” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 19–40 (2017).
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G. A. Tarran, J. L. Heywood, and M. V. Zubkov, “Latitudinal changes in the standing stocks of eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 53, 1516–1529 (2006).
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M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 degrees N to 50 degrees S,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 45, 1339–1355 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Bioinform. (1)

G. Walther, N. Zimmerman, W. Moore, D. Parks, S. Meehan, I. Belitskaya, J. Pan, and L. Herzenberg, “Automatic clustering of flow cytometry data with density-based merging,” Adv. Bioinform. 2009, 686759 (2009).
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Am. Sci. (1)

A. C. Redfield, “The biological control of chemical factors in the environment,” Am. Sci. 46, 205–221 (1958).

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

E. R. Zinser, A. Coe, Z. I. Johnson, A. C. Martiny, N. J. Fuller, D. J. Scanlan, and S. W. Chisholm, “Prochlorococcus ecotype abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean as revealed by an improved quantitative PCR method,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 723–732 (2006).
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Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Sci. (1)

J. Agagliate, R. Rottgers, K. Heymann, and D. McKee, “Estimation of suspended matter, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentrations from particle size and refractive index distributions,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2676 (2018).
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Deep-Sea Res. Part II (1)

G. A. Tarran, J. L. Heywood, and M. V. Zubkov, “Latitudinal changes in the standing stocks of eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II 53, 1516–1529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Environ. Microbiol. Rep. (1)

J. W. Chandler, Y. J. Lin, P. J. Gainer, A. F. Post, Z. I. Johnson, and E. R. Zinser, “Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean’s surface mixed layer,” Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 8, 272–284 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hydrobiologia (1)

H. W. Balfoort, T. Berman, S. Y. Maestrini, A. Wenzel, and T. Zohary, “Flow-cytometry—instrumentation and application in phytoplankton research,” Hydrobiologia 238, 89–97 (1992).
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D. Woitzik, J. Weckesser, and U. J. Jurgens, “Isolation and characterization of cell-wall components of the unicellular cyanobacterium synechococcus sp pcc 6307,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 619–627 (1988).
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J. Mol. Struct. (1)

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, “Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257–260 (1995).
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Nature (3)

S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer, “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone,” Nature 334, 340–343 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. Rocap, F. W. Larimer, J. Lamerdin, S. Malfatti, P. Chain, N. A. Ahlgren, A. Arellano, M. Coleman, L. Hauser, W. R. Hess, Z. I. Johnson, M. Land, D. Lindell, A. F. Post, W. Regala, M. Shah, S. L. Shaw, C. Steglich, M. B. Sullivan, C. S. Ting, A. Tolonen, E. A. Webb, E. R. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm, “Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation,” Nature 424, 1042–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. B. Waterbury, S. W. Watson, R. R. L. Guillard, and L. E. Brand, “Widespread occurrence of a unicellular, marine, planktonic, cyanobacterium,” Nature 277, 293–294 (1979).
[Crossref]

Prog. Oceanogr. (2)

T. Smyth, G. Quartly, T. Jackson, G. Tarran, M. Woodward, C. Harris, C. Gallienne, R. Thomas, R. Airs, D. Cummings, R. Brewin, V. Kitidis, J. Stephens, M. Zubkov, and A. Rees, “Determining Atlantic Ocean province contrasts and variations,” Prog. Oceanogr. 158, 19–40 (2017).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of scattering ($\psi, \phi$) within the flow cytometer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Mie-theory-derived lookup table results of log-transformed differential side scatter ${(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _4})}$ against differential forward scatter ($d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _3})$ for the flow cytometers used in this study. Mie scattering calculations were carried out at 0.180° resolution (number of angles = 999) for particles of diameter (${\rm D}$) ranging between 0.02–10 µm ($\Delta {\rm D} = {0.02}\;{\rm \unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$) and real RI between 1.010 and 1.200 ($\Delta {\rm RI}=0.001$). Solid contours are for constant RI from 1.01 to 1.09 in 0.02 increments; dashed contours are constant particle diameter from 2 to 10 µm in 2 µm intervals. Filled circles and diamonds are the theoretical results for a polystyrene bead (RI = 1.198) with a diameter of 3.6 and 5.16 µm, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of measured (data points) and predicted (solid lines) differential scattering cross section for polystyrene beads (RI = 1.198) of different sizes using a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer. The upper curve is differential forward scatter ${(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _3})_p}$, and the lower curve is differential side scatter ${(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _4})_p}$. The filled circle represents the scattering data against which all the other bead measurements are referenced (5.16 µm diameter).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Flow cytometric measurements of differential scattering cross section from eight different oil emulsions suspended in artificial seawater (see Table 2 for further details). HEX, hexane; HEP, heptane; OCT, octane; NON, nonane; DEC, decane; DOD, dodecane; TED, tetradecane; PED, pentadecane. The filled circle is the reference measurement for a bead of diameter 4 µm and RI 1.198.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Cluster analyses using the pico settings (Table 1) for (a) Synechecococcus (Syn) and (b) Prochlorococcus (Proc). Grey symbols indicate all data points, and colored density plots show cluster membership, where warmer colors indicate a greater number of particles. Resultant pairs of $[{(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _3})_p},{(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _4})_p}]$ as a density plot for (c) Synechecococcus and d) Prochlorococcus, superimposed on contours of size and RI. The filled circle represents the reference particle. Sample taken on AMT18 at 12:42 GMT on 6 October 2008 at a depth of 10 m, location 49.37°N, 11.39°W.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Top panels: size distribution for Synechecococcus (Syn) and Prochlorococcus (Proc) for the same sample shown in Fig. 5. Bottom panels: a direct intercomparison of (left) size and (right) RI for Synechecococcus (solid line) and Prochlorococcus (dashed line). Note the log scales on the $y$ axis.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Cluster analyses using the nano settings (Table 1) for (a) Synechecococcus (Syn) plus Cryptophytes (Crypt) and (b) Other, otherwise unclassified phytoplankton. Grey symbols indicate all data points, and colored density plots show cluster membership, where lighter colors indicate a greater number of particles. Resultant pairs of $[{(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _3})_p},{(d{C_{\rm sca}}/d{\Omega _4})_p}]$ as a density plot for (c) Synechococcus (Syn) plus Cryptophytes (Crypt) and (d) Other superimposed on contours of size and RI. The filled circle represents the reference particle. Sample taken on AMT18 at 12:42 GMT on 6 October 2008 at a depth of 10 m, location 49.37°N, 11.39°W.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Estimated abundance, size, and RI characteristics of Prochlorococcus as a function of depth and latitude (${\rm N}$ to ${\rm S}$) for AMT cruises 18–27 (2008–2017).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Average depth-resolved size distributions at ${10}({\pm 5})\,\,{\rm m}$, ${20}({\pm 5})\,\,{\rm m}$, ${50}({\pm 10})\,\,{\rm m}$, ${100}({\pm 10})\,\,{\rm m}$, ${150}({\pm 20})\,\,{\rm m}$, and ${200}({\pm 20})\,\,{\rm m}$ for six different provinces [32] of the Atlantic Ocean traversed by the AMT [19]. These are, from north to south: (i) North Atlantic Drift Region (NADR); (ii) North Atlantic Sub-tropical Gyre, East (NASE); (iii) North Atlantic Tropical Gyre (NATR); (iv) Western Tropical Atlantic (WTRA); (v) South Atlantic Gyre (SATL) and; (vi) South Sub-tropical Convergence (SSTC). For a map of the different provinces, see Fig 1. of Smyth et al., (2017)[19] . Numbers in the square brackets are the average total concentrations of Prochlorococcus (${{\rm mL}^{ - 1}}$) over each depth interval.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Estimated abundance, size, and RI characteristics of Synechococcus as a function of depth and latitude (${\rm N}$ to ${\rm S}$) for AMT cruises 18–27 (2008–2017).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Estimated abundance, size, and RI characteristics of unclassified picoplankton as a function of depth and latitude (${\rm N}$ to ${\rm S}$) for AMT cruises 18–27 (2008–2017).
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Weighting function for FACSort flow cytometer accounting for forward obscuration bar ($\psi {\lt}{1.0}$) and for both forward and side scattering detector geometries (see text for details). Weighting function constructed using Mie scattering theory and a Monte Carlo approach (${{10}^8}$ photons). Note log transformation of the $x$ axis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Typical Flow Cytometer Settings Optimized for the Detection of Prokaryotic (Pico) and Eukaryotic (Nano) Algae During AMTa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison Between Literature Values of RI for Different Oil Types and Those Derived from the Flow Cytometer Observationsa

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( i ) p = X ( i ) I ( i ) p G ( i ) p ( d C s c a / d Ω i ) p ,
S ( i ) r = X ( i ) I ( i ) r G ( i ) r ( d C s c a / d Ω i ) r .
( d C s c a / d Ω i ) p = S ( i ) p I ( i ) r G ( i ) r S ( i ) r I ( i ) p G ( i ) p ( d C s c a / d Ω i ) r .
ε = d x 2 + d y 2 ,
β ( ξ ξ ) d Ω ( ξ ) = β ( ψ , ϕ ) sin ψ d ψ d ϕ ,
β ( ψ , ϕ ) = β ( ψ ) ,
β ( ψ ) sin ψ d ψ d ϕ p ψ ( ψ ) d ψ p ϕ ( ϕ ) d ϕ .
p ϕ ( ϕ ) d ϕ = 1 2 π d ϕ ,
ϕ = 2 π R ϕ .
p ψ ( ψ ) = 2 π β ( ψ ) sin ψ .
R ψ = 2 π 0 ψ β ( ψ ) sin ψ d ψ ,
2 π 0 π β ( ψ ) sin ψ d ψ = 1 ,
β ( ψ ) = 1 π x 2 Q s c a { | S 1 | 2 + | S 2 | 2 2 } ,
f y = x l e n s tan ( ψ ) cos ( ϕ π ) f z = x l e n s tan ( ψ ) sin ( ϕ π ) f r = x l e n s tan ( θ f 2 ) ,
s x = y l e n s tan ( π 2 ψ ) , s z = y l e n s ( ϕ π ) , s r = y l e n s tan ( π 2 θ s 1 ) ,
β = 1 π x 2 Q s c a d C s c a d Ω .
d C s c a d Ω S 3 = ψ = 1.5 ψ = 12.2 β ( ψ ) W ( ψ ) Q s c a π r 2 d ψ ,
d C s c a d Ω S 4 = ψ = 116 ψ = 64 β ( ψ ) W ( ψ ) Q s c a π r 2 d ψ ,

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