Abstract

Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) is an emerging large-capacity data communication technology utilizing orthogonal guiding modes as independent data streams. One of the challenges of multimode waveguide routing in MDM systems is decreasing the mode leakage of waveguide crossings. In this article, a square Maxwell’s fish-eye lens as a waveguide crossing medium based on quasiconformal transformation optics is designed and implemented on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Two approaches were taken to realize the designed lens: graded photonic crystal and varying the thickness of the silicon slab waveguide. Three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the designed multimode waveguide crossing has an ultrawide bandwidth from 1260 to 1675 nm with a compact footprint of only 3.77×3.77μm2. For the first three transverse electric modes (TE0, TE1, and TE2), the designed waveguide crossing exhibits an average insertion loss of 0.24, 0.55, and 0.45 dB; a crosstalk of less than 72, 61, and 27dB; and a maximum return loss of 54, 53, and 30 dB, respectively. The designed waveguide crossing supports low-distortion pulse transmission with a high fidelity factor of 0.9857. Furthermore, the proposed method can be expanded to design waveguide crossings with an even higher number of supporting modes by increasing the size of the lens.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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