Abstract

Monocrystalline silicon-based, n-type front and back contact (nFAB) solar cells are gradually attracting more interest from the photovoltaic industry, due to their good bifaciality and high efficiency potentials. To further improve the conversion efficiency, nFAB solar cells need to make better use of the solar spectrum. Conventional single-layer SiNx antireflection coating (ARC) tends to have a high reflection loss for ultraviolet photons. Thus, in this work, we prepare a double-layer ARC structure made of SiNx/SiOx stack, deposited by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. We investigate the effects of double-layer ARC through simulation and experimental studies by fabricating bifacial nFAB cells. The results show that the implementation of a double-layer ARC helps to greatly reduce front reflection in short wavelength, and thus allow for improvement of the photocurrent by up to 0.3mA/cm2. As a result, the average cell efficiency of nFAB solar cells increases by absolute 0.2%.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (1)

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

C. Battaglia, A. Cuevas, and S. De Wolf, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells: status and perspectives,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. Sikder and M. A. Zaman, “Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 88–94 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Ur Rehman and S. H. Lee, “Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry,” Sci. World J. 2013, 470347 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses,” Plasma Process. Polym. 9, 761–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Hoex, W. Zhang, and A. G. Aberle, “Advanced characterisation of silicon wafer solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 147–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, and A. Green Martin, “24·5% efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24·7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7, 471–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Hoex, W. Zhang, and A. G. Aberle, “Advanced characterisation of silicon wafer solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 147–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aleman, M.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Altermatt, P. P.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

An, H.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Basu, P. K.

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, A. Cuevas, and S. De Wolf, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells: status and perspectives,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benick, J.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Black, L.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Borden, K.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Bouhafs, D.

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brendel, R.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Buatis, J. K.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Bultman, J.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Cai, W.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, P.-K.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chikouche, A.

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choulat, P.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choy, W. L.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Cornagliotti, E.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cuevas, A.

C. Battaglia, A. Cuevas, and S. De Wolf, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells: status and perspectives,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Cui, J.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Davis, K. O.

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Wolf, S.

C. Battaglia, A. Cuevas, and S. De Wolf, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells: status and perspectives,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dielissen, B.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dingemans, G.

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses,” Plasma Process. Polym. 9, 761–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Drabczyk, K.

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

Duan, W.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duerinckx, F.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dullweber, T.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Duttagupta, S.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Gabor, A. M.

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gatz, S.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Glatz-Reichenbach, J.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Glunz, S. W.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

Görtzen, R.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
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Green Martin, A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, and A. Green Martin, “24·5% efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24·7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7, 471–474 (1999).
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Gregory, G.

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grenko, B.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Gu, X.

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, S.

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haslinger, M.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hermle, M.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. W.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hoex, B.

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Hoex, W. Zhang, and A. G. Aberle, “Advanced characterisation of silicon wafer solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 147–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hörteis, M.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, P.-T.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Huang, C.-J.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

John, J.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kalio, A.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kessels, W. M. M.

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses,” Plasma Process. Polym. 9, 761–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khanna, A.

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kho, T.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Kuo, C.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

A. Ur Rehman and S. H. Lee, “Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry,” Sci. World J. 2013, 470347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.-C.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Li, M.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-J.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, D.

D. MacDonald, “The emergence of n-type silicon for solar cell manufacture,” in 50th Annual AuSES Conference (Solar 2012) (2012).

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

McKeon, J.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Moussi, A.

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mueller, T.

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, B.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Panek, P.

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

Peng, Z.-W.

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peter, K.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Petres, R.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Plagwitz, H.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Raj, S.

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richter, A.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Roessler, T.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Ruiz, J. M.

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

Russell, R.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Samundsett, C.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Sauer, K.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Schmidt, J.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schubert, G.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Seiffe, J.

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shanmugam, V.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sheng, J.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Sheng, Y.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Sikder, U.

U. Sikder and M. A. Zaman, “Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 88–94 (2016).
[Crossref]

Song, D.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Stangl, R. A.

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stapinski, T.

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

Steingrube, S.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Swatowska, B.

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

Szlufcik, J.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tous, L.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ur Rehman, A.

A. Ur Rehman and S. H. Lee, “Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry,” Sci. World J. 2013, 470347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urrejola, E.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Uruena, A.

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

van de Sanden, M. C. M.

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses,” Plasma Process. Polym. 9, 761–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Veith, B.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Venema, P. R.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Verlinden, P. J.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Vlooswijk, A. H. G.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Wan, Y.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Wang, A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, and A. Green Martin, “24·5% efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24·7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7, 471–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, E.-C.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Wang, W.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wefringhaus, E.

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

Werner, F.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Wong, J.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Xu, L.

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Yuan, N.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, S.

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Zaman, M. A.

U. Sikder and M. A. Zaman, “Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 88–94 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

Zhang, L.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

B. Hoex, W. Zhang, and A. G. Aberle, “Advanced characterisation of silicon wafer solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 147–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, and A. Green Martin, “24·5% efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24·7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7, 471–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zielke, D.

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

C. Battaglia, A. Cuevas, and S. De Wolf, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells: status and perspectives,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (5)

Z.-W. Peng, P.-T. Hsieh, C.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Lin, P.-K. Chang, C. Kuo, and C.-C. Li, “Toward 21% efficiency nPERT solar cells with selective back surface field technique,” Energy Procedia 92, 702–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, S. Yuan, Y. Sheng, W. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, P. P. Altermatt, P. J. Verlinden, and Z. Feng, “22.2% efficiency n-type PERT solar cell,” Energy Procedia 92, 399–403 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Richter, J. Benick, A. Kalio, J. Seiffe, M. Hörteis, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Towards industrial n-type PERT silicon solar cells: rear passivation and metallization scheme,” Energy Procedia 8, 479–486 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidt, F. Werner, B. Veith, D. Zielke, S. Steingrube, P. P. Altermatt, S. Gatz, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel, “Advances in the surface passivation of silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 30–39(2012).
[Crossref]

B. Hoex, W. Zhang, and A. G. Aberle, “Advanced characterisation of silicon wafer solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 147–154 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (3)

S. Raj, J. W. Ho, J. Wong, and A. G. Aberle, “Impact of nonuniform illumination and probe bar shading on solar cell I-V measurement,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7, 1203–1208 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Khanna, T. Mueller, R. A. Stangl, B. Hoex, P. K. Basu, and A. G. Aberle, “A fill factor loss analysis method for silicon wafer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1170–1177 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Cornagliotti, A. Uruena, M. Aleman, A. Sharma, L. Tous, R. Russell, P. Choulat, J. Chen, J. John, M. Haslinger, F. Duerinckx, B. Dielissen, R. Görtzen, L. Black, and J. Szlufcik, “Large-area n-type PERT solar cells featuring rear p+ emitter passivated by ALD Al2O3,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5, 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

J. Liu, Y. Yao, S. Xiao, and X. Gu, “Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Phys. D 51, 123001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Appl. (1)

B. Swatowska, T. Stapinski, K. Drabczyk, and P. Panek, “The role of antireflective coatings in silicon solar cells—the influence on their electrical parameters,” Opt. Appl. 41, 487–492 (2011).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

U. Sikder and M. A. Zaman, “Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 88–94 (2016).
[Crossref]

Plasma Process. Polym. (1)

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses,” Plasma Process. Polym. 9, 761–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, and A. Green Martin, “24·5% efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24·7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7, 471–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sci. World J. (1)

A. Ur Rehman and S. H. Lee, “Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry,” Sci. World J. 2013, 470347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solar Energy (2)

X. Yan, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Gong, X. Zhang, and S. Duttagupta, “Investigation of phosphorus diffused back surface field (BSF) in bifacial nFAB solar cells,” Solar Energy 179, 335–342 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Guo, G. Gregory, A. M. Gabor, W. V. Schoenfeld, and K. O. Davis, “Detailed investigation of TLM contact resistance measurements on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 151, 163–172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

D. Bouhafs, A. Moussi, A. Chikouche, and J. M. Ruiz, “Design and simulation of antireflection coating systems for optoelectronic devices: Application to silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 52, 79–93 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, W. Wang, S. Yuan, W. Cai, Y. Sheng, Y. Chen, J. Ding, N. Yuan, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Development of a large area n-type PERT cell with high efficiency of 22% using industrially feasible technology,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 152, 59–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, E.-C. Wang, N. Chen, J. W. Ho, M. Li, J. K. Buatis, B. Nagarajan, L. Xu, W. L. Choy, V. Shanmugam, J. Wong, A. G. Aberle, and S. Duttagupta, “Towards 22% efficient screen-printed bifacial n-type silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 187, 91–96(2018).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

D. Song, J. Xiong, Z. Hu, G. Li, H. Wang, H. An, B. Yu, B. Grenko, K. Borden, K. Sauer, T. Roessler, J. Cui, H. Wang, J. Bultman, A. H. G. Vlooswijk, and P. R. Venema, “Progress in n-type Si solar cell and module technology for high efficiency and low cost,” in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2012), pp. 003004.

Y. Wan, C. Samundsett, T. Kho, J. McKeon, L. Black, D. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, J. Sheng, Y. Sheng, S. Yuan, C. Zhang, Z. Feng, and P. J. Verlinden, “Towards industrial advanced front-junction n-type silicon solar cells,” in 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2014), pp. 0862–0865.

D. MacDonald, “The emergence of n-type silicon for solar cell manufacture,” in 50th Annual AuSES Conference (Solar 2012) (2012).

E. Urrejola, R. Petres, J. Glatz-Reichenbach, K. Peter, E. Wefringhaus, H. Plagwitz, and G. Schubert, “High efficiency industrial PERC solar cells with all PECVD-based rear surface passivation,” in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, (2011), pp. 2233–2235.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic structure of a typical bifacial nFAB solar cell with the use of an AlOx passivation layer and a double-layer SiNx/SiOx ARC stack.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated equivalent photocurrent density of reflected and generated light as a function of SiOx layer thickness, for nFAB solar cells with (a) 20/50 nm AlOx/SiNx stack, and (b) 20/30 nm AlOx/SiNx stack.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimentally measured front reflectance spectra of five nFAB cell precursors with different ARC stacks.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic fabrication process flow and corresponding structure of the nFAB solar cells at SERIS.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Box plots of (a) open-circuit voltage, (b) short-circuit current density, (c) fill factor, and (d) efficiency, of bifacial nFAB solar cells.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Box plots of (a) series resistance, (b) FF loss due to Rs, (c) FF loss due to Rsh, and (d) FF loss due to J02 recombination, of bifacial nFAB solar cells.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimentally TLM extracted contact resistance of nFAB solar cells with the use of three different ARC structures.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of photocurrent loss mechanism and Jsc breakdown of non-metallized area of nFAB solar cells with the use of three different ARC structures.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Five Different Front Dielectric Stack Designs of nFAB Solar Cells and Corresponding Results

Tables Icon

Table 2. Jsc Breakdown in Terms of Photocurrent Loss Mechanism and WAR Value of Non-Metallized Area of nFAB Solar Cells with the Use of Three Different ARC Structures

Equations (1)

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Rw=λ1λ2ϕp(λ)R(λ)dλλ1λ2ϕp(λ)dλ,

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