Abstract

One of the major problems in freeform illumination design in a geometrical optics approximation is picture generation with extended light sources. In contrast to the freeform design with zero-étendue sources, the extension of the light source leads to the typical blurring effect and a contrast reduction of the required irradiance. This effect can be minimized by increasing the distance between the freeform surface and the light source, which according to étendue conservation, results in an impractically large projection optic. To tackle this problem, we propose a design concept consisting of the combination of a pattern-generating double freeform surface for collimated beam shaping, which is calculated for a zero-étendue light source, and an imaging projection system with a telecentric object space. The design concept works independently of the shape of the emission area of the light source and does not require a representation of the extended light source by several individual wavefronts. By interpreting the pattern blurring effect as a composition of a shift contribution and a distortion contribution, we show that both can be minimized simultaneously by an appropriate placement of the object plane of the imaging optics and by making the distance between both freeform surfaces as small as possible. This allows the calculation of compact, energy-efficient freeform illumination systems for picture generation with real extended light sources. We demonstrate the significant blurring reduction by designing a simple illumination system consisting of a collimation optic, a (zero-étendue) double freeform lens for collimated beam shaping, and a projection lens for the generation of the target distribution “Elaine” with an extended Lambertian emitter of 3mm×3mm extension and ±42deg maximum opening angle. For a working distance to the projection system of 500 mm and a target area of 300mm×300mm, a relative blurring extension of 2% is estimated, compared to 23% for a single freeform projector with the same energy throughput and similar lateral extension. The influence of the doublefreeform thickness on the blurring reduction is demonstrated, and a summary of the design procedure for the developed design concept is given.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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