Abstract

In future fusion reactors, heating system efficiency is of the utmost importance. Photo-neutralization substantially increases the neutral beam injector (NBI) efficiency with respect to the foreseen system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) based on a gaseous target. In this paper, we propose a telescope-based configuration to be used in the NBI photo-neutralizer cavity of the demonstration power plant (DEMO) project. This configuration greatly reduces the total length of the cavity, which likely solves overcrowding issues in a fusion reactor environment. Brought to a tabletop experiment, this cavity configuration is tested: a 4 mm beam width is obtained within a 1.5  m length cavity. The equivalent cavity g factor is measured to be 0.038(3), thus confirming the cavity stability.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Vandevraye, P. Babilotte, C. Drag, and C. Blondel, “Laser measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H– at the wavelength 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 013411 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Impens and Ch. J. Bordé, “Generalized ABCD propagation for interacting atomic clouds,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043613 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Vinet, “On special optical modes and thermal issues in advanced gravitational wave interferometric detectors,” Living Rev. Relativ. 12, 5–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Barriga, M. A. Arain, G. Mueller, C. Zhao, and D. G. Blair, “Optical design of the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory,” Opt. Express 17, 2149–2165 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. S. Hemsworth, A. Tanga, and V. Antoni, “Status of the ITER neutral beam injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

B. J. Green and ITER International Team and Participant Teams, “ITER: burning plasma physics experiment,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 687–706 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

1972 (1)

1969 (2)

G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, “Reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at tilted ellipsoidal surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 8, 975–978 (1969).
[Crossref]

P. Baues, “The connection of geometrical optics with the propagation of Gaussian beams and the theory of optical resonators,” Opto-electronics 1, 103–118 (1969).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mode—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).
[Crossref]

1890 (2)

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 110, 1251–1253 (1890).

L. G. Gouy, “Sur la propagation anomale des ondes,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 111, 33–35 (1890).

Achard, J.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Achkasov, K.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Antoni, V.

R. S. Hemsworth, A. Tanga, and V. Antoni, “Status of the ITER neutral beam injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Antos, R.

Arain, M. A.

Babilotte, P.

M. Vandevraye, P. Babilotte, C. Drag, and C. Blondel, “Laser measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H– at the wavelength 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 013411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barbatoc, E.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barriga, P.

Baudouin, C.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baues, P.

P. Baues, “The connection of geometrical optics with the propagation of Gaussian beams and the theory of optical resonators,” Opto-electronics 1, 103–118 (1969).
[Crossref]

Baulaigue, O.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bechu, S.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bécoulet, A.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertoldi, A.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blair, D. G.

Blondel, C.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Vandevraye, P. Babilotte, C. Drag, and C. Blondel, “Laser measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H– at the wavelength 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 013411 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, J. P.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borba, D.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bordé, Ch. J.

F. Impens and Ch. J. Bordé, “Generalized ABCD propagation for interacting atomic clouds,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043613 (2009).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).

Bosiad, G.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boutard, J.-L.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bouyer, P.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bresteau, D.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brillet, A.

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cabaret, L.

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Canuel, B.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardinalic, A.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cartry, G.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ceccuzzic, S.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cesarioc, R.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaibi, W.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christin, L.

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, E.

de Esch, H.

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Esch, H. P. L.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delsart, C.

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Drag, C.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Vandevraye, P. Babilotte, C. Drag, and C. Blondel, “Laser measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H– at the wavelength 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 013411 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Federicia, G.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fink, J. H.

J. H. Fink, “Photodetachment now,” in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Monterey, CA, October 12–16, 1987.

Fiorucci, D.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franke, T.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fritschel, P. K.

Frolov, V.

Fubiani, G.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Furno, I.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Futtersack, R.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gantenbeinf, G.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garibaldi, P.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
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Gicquel, A.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
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Gouy, L. G.

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 110, 1251–1253 (1890).

L. G. Gouy, “Sur la propagation anomale des ondes,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 111, 33–35 (1890).

Grand, C.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
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Green, B. J.

B. J. Green and ITER International Team and Participant Teams, “ITER: burning plasma physics experiment,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 687–706 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gretarsson, A. M.

Guittienne, Ph.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hagelaar, G.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hello, P.

Heloug, W.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hemsworth, R. S.

R. S. Hemsworth, A. Tanga, and V. Antoni, “Status of the ITER neutral beam injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Herloski, R.

Hillairetg, J.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Horton, L.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Howling, A.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Impens, F.

F. Impens and Ch. J. Bordé, “Generalized ABCD propagation for interacting atomic clouds,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043613 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jacquier, R.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jenkinsh, I.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kazakove, Y. O.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kemph, R.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, M. J.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[Crossref]

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical mode—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).
[Crossref]

Landragin, A.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lefèvre, G.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lemoine, D.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lepetit, B.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lerchee, E.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[Crossref]

Maisonnier, D.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Man, C. N.

Marshall, S.

Massey, G. A.

Meers, B. J.

Mielec, N.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Minea, T.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mirizzic, F.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morrison, E.

Mueller, G.

Noterdaemeb, J.-M.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, B.

Odic, E.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pamela, J.

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, “Optimal degeneracy for the signal-recycling cavity in advanced LIGO,” arXiv:gr-qc/0608128v1 (2006).

Pichot, M.

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Polib, E.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Portei, L.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prevedelli, M.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. S. Rao, Optimization: Theory and Applications (Wiley Eastern, 1979).

Raverac, G. L.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Revel, A.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riou, I.

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D. I.

Siegman, A. E.

Simonin, A.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soliman, B. A.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Surreyh, E.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanga, A.

R. S. Hemsworth, A. Tanga, and V. Antoni, “Status of the ITER neutral beam injection system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C109 (2008).
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Tardinib, G.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Teste, P.

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Trani, M. Q.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsironisj, C.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tuccilloc, A. A.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Eestere, D.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vandevraye, M.

M. Vandevraye, P. Babilotte, C. Drag, and C. Blondel, “Laser measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H– at the wavelength 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 013411 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Villecroze, F.

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vinet, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Vinet, “On special optical modes and thermal issues in advanced gravitational wave interferometric detectors,” Living Rev. Relativ. 12, 5–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ward, H.

Wenningera, R.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).

Zhao, C.

Zohmb, H.

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (3)

A. Simonin, L. Christin, H. de Esch, P. Garibaldi, C. Grand, F. Villecroze, C. Blondel, C. Delsart, C. Drag, M. Vandevraye, A. Brillet, and W. Chaibi, “SIPHORE: conceptual study of a high efficiency neutral beam injector based on photo-detachment for future fusion reactors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1390, 494–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Chaibi, C. Blondel, L. Cabaret, C. Delsart, C. Drag, and A. Simonin, “Photo-neutralization of negative ion beam for future fusion reactor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1097, 385–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Fiorucci, J. Feng, M. Pichot, and W. Chaibi, “Thermal effects in high power cavities for photo-neutralization of D– beams in future neutral beam injectors,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1655, 050010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

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Fusion Eng. Des. (2)

J. Pamela, A. Bécoulet, D. Borba, J.-L. Boutard, L. Horton, and D. Maisonnier, “Efficiency and availability driven R&D issues for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 84, 194–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Franke, E. Barbatoc, G. Bosiad, A. Cardinalic, S. Ceccuzzic, R. Cesarioc, D. Van Eestere, G. Federicia, G. Gantenbeinf, W. Heloug, J. Hillairetg, I. Jenkinsh, Y. O. Kazakove, R. Kemph, E. Lerchee, F. Mirizzic, J.-M. Noterdaemeb, E. Polib, L. Portei, G. L. Raverac, E. Surreyh, G. Tardinib, M. Q. Trani, C. Tsironisj, A. A. Tuccilloc, R. Wenningera, and H. Zohmb, and The EFDA PPP&T Team, “Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO,” Fusion Eng. Des. 96–97, 468–472 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

I. Riou, N. Mielec, G. Lefèvre, M. Prevedelli, A. Landragin, P. Bouyer, A. Bertoldi, R. Geiger, and B. Canuel, “A marginally stable optical resonator for enhanced atom interferometry,” J. Phys. B 50, 155002 (2017).
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Living Rev. Relativ. (1)

J.-Y. Vinet, “On special optical modes and thermal issues in advanced gravitational wave interferometric detectors,” Living Rev. Relativ. 12, 5–123 (2009).
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Nucl. Fusion (1)

A. Simonin, J. Achard, K. Achkasov, S. Bechu, C. Baudouin, O. Baulaigue, C. Blondel, J. P. Boeuf, D. Bresteau, G. Cartry, W. Chaibi, C. Drag, H. P. L. de Esch, D. Fiorucci, G. Fubiani, I. Furno, R. Futtersack, P. Garibaldi, A. Gicquel, C. Grand, Ph. Guittienne, G. Hagelaar, A. Howling, R. Jacquier, M. J. Kirkpatrick, D. Lemoine, B. Lepetit, T. Minea, E. Odic, A. Revel, B. A. Soliman, and P. Teste, “R&D around a photo-neutralizer-based NBI system (Siphore) in view of a DEMO Tokamak steady state fusion reactor,” Nucl. Fusion 55, 123020 (2015).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Top: negative ions are provided by a source then electrostatically accelerated to 1 Mev. Photo-neutralization occurs within a four times refolded cavity focusing 3 MW laser power. The cavity whole length is 100 m. Bottom: inserting an adequate telescope reduces the cavity length down to 30 m while keeping the beam width unchanged in the laser–ions interaction area.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Laser beam is injected by the mirror M 1 and naturally expands through the telescope before being reflected to become subparallel between M 2 and the flat mirror M 3 . The ( M 2 M 3 ) section can be folded several times to cover the whole ion beam. (b) Aside from the angle θ , the mirror can be simulated by a lens of focal length f = R 2 / 2 .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Values R 1 = 15 , 7 , 1.5    cm correspond, respectively, to R 2 = 6 , 4 , 2    m to have g e 0.04 . R 1 = 1.5    cm excludes the R 2 as small as 2 m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Variation of w 0 , g e , and w 1 with respect to l for the three cases ( R 1 = 15    cm , R 2 = 6    m ), ( R 1 = 7    cm , R 2 = 4    m ), and ( R 1 = 1.5    cm , R 2 = 2    m ). The case ( R 1 = 15    cm , R 2 = 6    m ) offers more latitude to choose an optically stable configuration responding to the injector requirements.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Meter scale telescope-based cavity and its beam injection system. The laser frequency is modulated in order to scan the cavity resonances. Two output beams through the mirror M 2 are monitored using a CCD camera.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Simultaneous capture of the output beams going through a diminishing lens, which inverts the spots positions. (b) Measurements of the output beams’ radii using the camera software fit procedure. According to the fit, beams are Gaussian at 91 % .
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Laser frequency is modulated by applying a triangular voltage (orange curve) ten times amplified (purple curve). Resonances are identified on the reflection signal (cyan curve). Resonance peaks are asymmetric due to the cavity photon lifetime, and potential related systematic errors are canceled by differential measurement procedure. It is impossible to relate the HG 10 to either surrounding HG 00 peaks. This uncertainty is expressed by the modulo 2 π in Eq. (31).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. In the upper figure, uncertainties on voltage measurement experimentally estimated (blue marks) and reevaluated (red marks) are displayed in order to include corresponding χ 2 values into the confidence range (dashed lines on the lower figure). Measurements data for f 800    Hz are simply rejected.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Evolution of α , β , and γ with respect to f . The relative uncertainties are 40 % for α , 10 % for β , and 1 % for γ . β and γ show a clear behavior with respect to f . The red mark on the lower figure corresponds to γ c and was arbitrarily placed at f = 0    Hz .
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Frequency response of the laser with respect to the voltage in the [0, 30] V range for different modulation frequencies f . Uncertainties on α , β , and γ are not considered. The modulation efficiency decreases with increasing f .
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Distribution of ϕ f with respect to the modulation frequency f (blue marks) and its average value (red mark) arbitrarily placed. Considering their uncertainties, data points ϕ f are coincident.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Refolded cavity in the ring configuration for both simple and telescope-accommodating cases.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Geometrical Features of Considered Cavities and Corresponding Intra-cavity Beam Characteristics

Equations (69)

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Δ ν ϕ G π Δ ν FSR ,
L 1 l = f ( 1 + L 2 / f 1 ( L 2 / f 1 ) 2 + ( z R / f ) 2 ) ,
w 0 = w 0 ( ( L 2 / f 1 ) 2 + ( z R / f ) 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
ϕ G 2 ( π 2 + ϕ M 1 w 0 ) .
w 0 2 = λ l π g h 1 g h = λ π l ( R 1 l ) ,
0 < l < R 1 and w 0 < λ R 1 2 π .
R 1 = λ 4 π w 0 2 R 2 2 1 g e ( 1 g e ) .
g e λ 2 R 2 4 16 π 2 w 0 4 R 1 2 ( 1 + λ 2 R 2 4 16 π 2 w 0 4 R 1 2 ) .
M = ( A B C D ) and A D B C = 1 ,
q 0 = A q 0 + B C q 0 + D .
q 1 = A rt q 1 + B rt C rt q 1 + D rt .
1 q 1 = A rt D rt 2 B rt i | B rt | 1 m rt 2 .
w 1 = [ λ π 4 | B rt | 1 m rt 2 ( D rt A rt ) 2 + 4 ( 1 m rt 2 ) ] 1 / 2 .
α 2 α 1 = λ rt = m rt + i ε 1 m rt 2 ,
cos ( ϕ G ) = m rt and g e = 1 + m rt 2 .
w 0 = w 0 ( ( C l + D ) 2 + π 2 C 2 w 0 4 λ 2 ) 1 / 2 .
α 2 α 1 = ( λ rt , t λ rt , s ) 1 / 2 , λ rt , t , s = m rt , t , s ± i 1 m rt , t , s 2 .
λ t , s 1 / 2 ± [ g e ( 1 + ε t , s δ m t , s 2 g e ) + i 1 g e ( 1 + ε t , s δ m t , s 2 ( 1 g e ) ) ] ,
cos ϕ G g e ( 1 ( δ m 2 g e ) 2 ) ( 1 g e ) ( 1 ( δ m 2 ( 1 g e ) ) 2 ) .
F = π r 2 r 1 1 r 1 r 2 2 and R 0 = ( r 1 r 2 2 ) 2 ( 1 r 1 r 2 2 ) 2 ,
g e = 1 + cos ( ϕ G ) 2 ,
g e 1 4 ( δ ϕ G 0 δ ϕ G ) 2 ,
ϕ G = 2.7 ± 0.2    rad    g e = 0.052 ± 0.043    at    1 σ ,
ν q , 00 ( L ) = c 2 L ( q ϕ G 2 π ϕ M 2 π ) ,
ν q , 10 ( L ) = c 2 L ( q 2 × ϕ G 2 π ϕ M 2 π ) .
ϕ G = ϕ G 0 2 π ν q , 10 ν q , 00 ν q + 1,00 ν q , 00 [ 2 π ] ,
α 2 , i , j α 1 , i , j = λ rt , t i + 1 / 2 × λ rt , s j + 1 / 2 .
ν q , i , j = c 2 L ( q 1 2 π Arg ( α 2 , i , j α 1 , i , j ) ϕ M 2 π ) .
ϕ G 2 π ( ν q , 10 + ν q , 01 ) / 2 ν q , 00 ν q + 1,00 ν q , 00 [ 2 π ] ,
ϕ G = ϕ G 0 + Δ ϕ G , Δ ϕ G = 1 2 [ arctan ( 1 m t 2 m t ) arctan ( 1 m s 2 m s ) ] ,
ϕ G 2 π D ν ( f , V q , 10 ) D ν ( f , V q , 00 ) D ν ( f , V q + 1,00 ) D ν ( f , V q , 00 ) [ 2 π ] ,
D ν ( f , V ( t q + 1,00 ) ) D ν ( f , V ( t q , 00 ) ) c 2 L ( t q , 0 ) ,
Y f = ( D ν ( f , V f , 1,2 ) D ν ( f , V f , 1,1 ) c 2 L D ν ( f , V f , 1,3 ) D ν ( f , V f , 1,2 ) c 2 L D ν ( f , V f , 2,2 ) D ν ( f , V f , 2,1 ) c 2 L ) ,
χ f 2 = 1 n ( n 1 ) N × Y f t Ω f 1 Y f ,
D ν ( f , V ) = k = 1 N ζ k , N ( f ) V k ,
χ f 2 α ( f ) = 0 .
χ f 2 = 1 ± σ χ 2 0.62 χ f 2 1.38 .
ϕ f , i , j 2 π × 2 L c k = 1 3 ζ k , 3 ( f ) ( V f , i , j k V f , i , j k ) [ 2 π ] ,
χ f , G 2 = ( ( ϕ f , i , j ) i , j ϕ f ) t Ω f , G 1 ( ( ϕ f , i , j ) i , j ϕ f ) n ( n 1 ) 1 ,
ϕ f , v = i = 1 5 ( σ ϕ f , i , 1 2 ϕ f , i , 1 + σ ϕ f , i , 2 2 ϕ f , i , 2 ) i = 1 5 ( σ ϕ f , i , 1 2 + σ ϕ f , i , 2 2 ) ,
σ ϕ f , v 2 = ( i = 1 5 ( σ ϕ f , i , 1 2 + σ ϕ f , i , 2 2 ) ) 1 .
ϕ G 0 = f σ ϕ f 2 × ϕ f f σ ϕ f 2 ,
σ ϕ 2 = f σ ϕ 2 .
χ f 2 = 1 7 1 f ( ϕ ϕ f ) 2 σ f 2 0.75 ,
ϕ G = 2.750 ± 0.016    and    g e = 0.038 ± 0.003    within    1 σ .
M rt = ( A rt B rt C rt D rt ) = ( 1 L 1 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 2 R 2 1 ) × ( 1 L 2 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 0 1 ) × ( 1 L 2 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 2 R 2 1 ) × ( 1 L 1 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 2 R 2 1 ) .
A rt = L 1 2 ( 8 R 2 16 L 2 ) + L 1 ( 16 L 2 R 2 + 8 L 2 R 1 4 R 2 2 4 R 1 R 2 ) R 1 R 2 2 + 4 L 2 R 2 2 4 L 2 R 1 R 2 + R 1 R 2 2 R 1 R 2 2 , B rt = ( 8 L 2 R 2 2 4 R 2 ) L 1 2 + ( 2 8 L 2 R 2 ) L 1 + 2 L 2 , C rt = 8 L 1 ( R 2 2 L 2 ) + 8 L 2 ( R 1 + R 2 ) 2 R 2 ( 2 R 1 + R 2 ) R 1 R 2 2 , D rt = 1 4 L 2 R 2 + ( 8 L 2 R 2 4 R 2 ) L 1 .
M = ( A B C D ) = ( 1 L 2 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 2 R 2 1 ) × ( 1 L 1 0 1 ) × ( 1 0 2 R 1 1 ) .
A = L 1 ( 4 L 2 2 R 2 ) + R 1 R 2 2 L 2 ( R 1 + R 2 ) R 1 R 2 , B = L 1 + L 2 2 L 1 L 2 R 2 , C = 2 ( R 1 + R 2 2 L 1 ) R 1 R 2 , D = 1 2 L 1 R 2 .
δ ϕ G 4 π w 0 2 λ R 2 2 δ l .
ν ( t q , i 0 ) = ν 0 ( t q , i 0 ) + D ν ( f , V ( t q , i 0 ) ) = c 2 L ( t q , i 0 ) ( q ( 1 + δ 1 , i ) ϕ G + ϕ M 2 π ) ,
ν ( t q + 1,0 ) ν ( t q , 0 ) = [ ν 0 ( t q + 1,0 ) ν 0 ( t q , 0 ) ] + [ D ν ( f , V ( t q + 1,00 ) ) D ν ( f , V ( t q , 00 ) ) ] = c 2 ( q + 1 L ( t q + 1,0 ) q L ( t q , 0 ) ) c 4 π ( ϕ G + ϕ M ) ( 1 L ( t q + 1,0 ) 1 L ( t q , 0 ) ) ,
ν ( t q , 1 ) ν ( t q , 0 ) = [ ν 0 ( t q , 1 ) ν 0 ( t q , 0 ) ] + [ D ν ( f , V ( t q , 10 ) ) D ν ( f , V ( t q , 00 ) ) ] = q c 2 ( 1 L ( t q , 1 ) 1 L ( t q , 0 ) ) c 4 π ( 2 ϕ G + ϕ M ) ( 1 L ( t q , 1 ) 1 L ( t q , 0 ) ) .
D ν ( f , V ( t q + 1,00 ) ) D ν ( f , V ( t q , 00 ) ) c 2 L ( t q , 0 ) ,
D ν ( f , V ( t q , 10 ) ) D ν ( f , V ( t q , 00 ) ) c 2 L ( t q , 0 ) × ϕ G 2 π ,
η 0 η ( x 10 , x 20 , x n 0 )
σ η 2 i , j η x i η x j c i , j
Cov ( η , μ ) i , j η x i μ x j c i , j
V f ( V 1 , V 2 , L ) = σ V 2 [ 3 α 2 ( V 2,0 4 + V 1,0 4 ) + 12 α β ( V 2,0 3 + V 1,0 3 ) + ( 2 β 2 + 6 α γ ) ( V 2,0 2 + V 1,0 2 ) + 4 β γ ( V 2,0 + V 1,0 ) + 2 γ 2 ] + c 2 4    L 2 σ L 2 .
V f 2 γ c 2 σ V , f 2 + c 2 4    L 2 σ L 2 .
C f ( V 2 , L ) = σ V 2 [ 3 α 2 V 2,0 4 + 12 α β V 2,0 3 + ( 2 β 2 + 6 α γ ) V 2,0 2 + 4 β γ V 2,0 + 2 γ 2 ] + c 2 4 L 2 σ L 2 or = c 2 4 L 2 σ L 2 .
C f , i γ c 2 σ V , f 2 + c 2 4 L 2 σ L 2 or = c 2 4 L 2 σ L 2 .
Ω f ( V f , 1,1 C f , 1 0 0 C f , 1 V f , 1,2 0 0 0 0 V f , 2,1 C f , 1 0 0 C f , 1 V f , 2,2 ) ,
χ f , N 2 = i = 1 5 y t f , i ω f , i 1 y f , i = i = 1 5 χ f , N , i 2
ω f , i = ( V f , i , 1 C f , i C f , i V f , i , 2 ) .
χ f , N , i 2 = 1 V f , i , 1 V f , i , 2 C f , i [ V f , i , 2 ( α Δ i , 1 ( 3 ) + β Δ i , 1 ( 2 ) + γ Δ i , 1 ( 1 ) c 2 L ) + V f , i , 1 ( α Δ i , 2 ( 3 ) + β Δ i , 2 ( 2 ) + γ Δ i , 2 ( 1 ) c 2 L ) 2 C f , i ( α Δ i , 1 ( 3 ) + β Δ i , 1 ( 2 ) + γ Δ i , 1 ( 1 ) c 2 L ) ( α Δ i , 2 ( 3 ) + β Δ i , 2 ( 2 ) + γ Δ i , 2 ( 1 ) c 2 L ) .
Δ = c 2 L i = 1 5 1 V f , i , 1 V f , i , 2 C f , i 2 × ( Δ i , 1 ( 3 ) ( V f , i , 2 C f , i ) + Δ i , 2 ( 3 ) ( V f , i , 1 C f , i ) Δ i , 1 ( 2 ) ( V f , i , 2 C f , i ) + Δ i , 2 ( 2 ) ( V f , i , 1 C f , i ) Δ i , 1 ( 1 ) ( V f , i , 2 C f , i ) + Δ i , 2 ( 1 ) ( V f , i , 1 C f , i ) ) .
α = α 0 + i = 1 5 j = 1 3 α W i , j ) W i , j = V i , j ( W i , j V i , j ) ,
V f ( α ) = σ V , f 2 i = 1 5 j = 1 3 α W i , j ) W i , j = V i , j × t α W i , j ) W i , j = V i , j .

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