Abstract

Double-clad fibers (DCFs) are versatile waveguides supporting a single-mode core surrounded by a multimode inner cladding. DCFs are increasingly used for multimodal biomedical applications, such as imaging or therapy, for which the core is typically used for coherent illumination and the inner cladding, to support a concurrent modality. Proper optimization is, however, critical to ensure high optical performance and requires accurate modeling of coaxial single- and multimode output beams. In this paper, we present an approach based on geometrical optics and radiometry, which provides a simple and efficient modeling tool for designing and optimizing DCF-based systems. A radiometric definition of single- and multimode output beams in terms of irradiance and radiant intensity allows for the modeling of the energy distribution along the beams’ propagation. We confirmed the validity of the model through comparison with experimental measurements and demonstrate the use of the model for optimizing a catheter for concurrent OCT and laser coagulation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (7)

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

E. De Montigny, N. Goulamhoussen, W.-J. Madore, M. Strupler, O. E. Gologan, T. Ayad, and C. Boudoux, “Tri-modal microscope for head and neck tissue identification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 732–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, G. Hohert, S. Lam, T. Shaipanich, E.-L. Beaudoin, C. MacAulay, C. Boudoux, and P. Lane, “Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3209–3212 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Strupler, F. Benboujja, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber with a tapered end for confocal endomicroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2961–2972 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2347–2349 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. Rousseau and L. Jeunhomme, “Numerical solution of the coupled-power equation in step-index optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 577–585 (1977).
[Crossref]

Arnason, T.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Attendu, X.

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Auger, M.

Ayad, T.

Baac, H. W.

Bass, M.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Beaudette, K.

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, E.-L.

Benboujja, F.

Bernard, G.

Bosch, J. G.

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boudoux, C.

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, G. Hohert, S. Lam, T. Shaipanich, E.-L. Beaudoin, C. MacAulay, C. Boudoux, and P. Lane, “Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3209–3212 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. De Montigny, N. Goulamhoussen, W.-J. Madore, M. Strupler, O. E. Gologan, T. Ayad, and C. Boudoux, “Tri-modal microscope for head and neck tissue identification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 732–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. De Montigny, W.-J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23, 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, A. S. Kramer, G. C. Yeoh, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1767–1781 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38, 266–268 (2013).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4514–4517 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Strupler, F. Benboujja, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber with a tapered end for confocal endomicroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2961–2972 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Boudoux, “Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007).

Bouma, B. E.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carruth, R. W.

Chen, Z.

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. S.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Daxhelet, X.

De Montigny, E.

DeCusatis, C.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Ellerbee Bowden, A. K.

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Enoch, J.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Fard, A. M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, K. A.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, T. P.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
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G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
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K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
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R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
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K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. De Montigny, W.-J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23, 9040–9051 (2015).
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L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, A. S. Kramer, G. C. Yeoh, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1767–1781 (2015).
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W.-J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4514–4517 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38, 266–268 (2013).
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S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Strupler, F. Benboujja, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber with a tapered end for confocal endomicroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2961–2972 (2011).
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Gologan, O. E.

Gopinath, A.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
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Gora, M. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Guay-Lord, R.

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
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S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
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G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
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R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
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Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
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S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
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M. Rousseau and L. Jeunhomme, “Numerical solution of the coupled-power equation in step-index optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 577–585 (1977).
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S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kava, L.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Kim, J. W.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
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S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
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Kirk, R. W.

Kramer, A. S.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Lam, S.

Lane, P.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Lee, A. M. D.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, M. W.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Li, G.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Li, J.

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liang, S.

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lo, W. C. Y.

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lorenser, D.

Lurie, K. L.

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, T.

MacAulay, C.

Macdonald, C.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Madore, W.-J.

E. De Montigny, N. Goulamhoussen, W.-J. Madore, M. Strupler, O. E. Gologan, T. Ayad, and C. Boudoux, “Tri-modal microscope for head and neck tissue identification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 732–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, A. S. Kramer, G. C. Yeoh, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1767–1781 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. De Montigny, W.-J. Madore, O. Ouellette, G. Bernard, M. Leduc, M. Strupler, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout, “Double-clad fiber coupler for partially coherent detection,” Opt. Express 23, 9040–9051 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4514–4517 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38, 266–268 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mageau, L.

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mahajan, V.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Maslov, K.

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
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McLaughlin, R. A.

Mertz, J.

J. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts & Company, 2010).

Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Na, J.

Nam, A. S.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nam, H. S.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Narula, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oh, D. J.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, W. Y.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ouellette, O.

Pahlevaninezhad, H.

Park, K.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pregla, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[Crossref]

Quirk, B. C.

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rousseau, M.

M. Rousseau and L. Jeunhomme, “Numerical solution of the coupled-power equation in step-index optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 577–585 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. Y.

Saidi, A.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sampson, D. D.

Sauk, J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scarmozzino, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[Crossref]

Scolaro, L.

Shaipanich, T.

Shishkov, M.

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shung, K. K.

Song, J. W.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soomro, A. R.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Strupler, M.

Sun, C.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, K. M.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

Ughi, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vakoc, B. J.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Villiger, M.

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Beaudette, H. W. Baac, W.-J. Madore, M. Villiger, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography—near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 30849–30858 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

Xing, W.

Yelin, D.

Yeoh, G. C.

Yoo, H.

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Eur. Heart J. (1)

S. Kim, M. W. Lee, T. S. Kim, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, J. Ryu, D. J. Oh, D.-G. Gweon, S. H. Park, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Intracoronary dual-modal optical coherence tomography-near-infrared fluorescence structural-molecular imaging with a clinical dose of indocyanine green for the assessment of high-risk plaques and stent-associated inflammation in a beating coronary artery,” Eur. Heart J. 37, 2833–2844 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. (1)

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. Rousseau and L. Jeunhomme, “Numerical solution of the coupled-power equation in step-index optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 577–585 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 070501 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Guay-Lord, K. L. Lurie, X. Attendu, L. Mageau, N. Godbout, A. K. Ellerbee Bowden, M. Strupler, and C. Boudoux, “Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 116008 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophoton. 10, 84–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Clinical characterization of coronary atherosclerosis with dual-modality oct and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 9, 1304–1314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17, 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Xing, L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated optical- and acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical fiber bundle,” Opt. Lett. 38, 52–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38, 266–268 (2013).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4514–4517 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, G. Hohert, S. Lam, T. Shaipanich, E.-L. Beaudoin, C. MacAulay, C. Boudoux, and P. Lane, “Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3209–3212 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2408–2410 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2347–2349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Beaudette, W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, M. Shishkov, N. Godbout, B. E. Bouma, and C. Boudoux, “Towards in vivo laser coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through double-clad fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE 9701, 97010B (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. Macdonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Design, Fabrication and Testing, Sources and Detectors, Radiometry and Photometry (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

C. Boudoux, “Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007).

J. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts & Company, 2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MM propagation for a given optical system. The object corresponds to the fiber’s end facet. The pink shaded area represents the MM beam as it exits the optical system. F and F represent the front and back focal planes, respectively. H and H are the object and image principal planes, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Coordinate system definition used to describe the radiance.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Representation of the modeled SM and MM beam outputs. Upper graph represents the normalized irradiance f ( ρ ) for each beam, and the lower graph, the normalized radiant intensity g ( ϕ ) , showing both the uniform and Bessel functions used.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Geometrical optics analysis of the GRIN lens assembly. F and F , front and back focal planes, respectively; H and H , object and image principal planes, respectively; Obj, object plane; Im, image plane.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental versus simulation results. The graph shows MM beam FWHM (left axis in blue) and SM coupling efficiency (right axis in red) both as a function of axial position with respect to the end face of the GRIN lens. MM beam profiles at 4 mm and 7.5 mm, obtained experimentally with a CCD camera and through simulations using 5,000,000 rays, are shown. To highlight the distinct beam profiles obtained for each case at an axial position of 4 mm, the profile distributions are overlaid on their respective spot image. All profiles are shown on a linear scale and share the same scale bar: 200 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Longitudinal and (b) cross-sectional schematics of a typical balloon-catheter showing the distal optics included in the hypotube, the window tube and the balloon. R, balloon radius; WD, working distance.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulation results for a double spacer GRIN lens configuration (a) and (b) and a single spacer GRIN lens configuration (c) and (d). (a) Double GRIN lens-based probe assembly where SM and MM beams are represented in red and blue, respectively. The second spacer length (indicated by the double white arrow) was varied to modify the MM propagation. Lengths for other components are specified in the inset. (b) SM beam spot size radius for a spacer length of 1 mm (right axis in red) and MM FWHM for different spacer lengths (left axis). The dotted–dashed line represents the tissue surface, and the black arrow indicates the MM image plane slightly shifted from the SM image plane (dashed line) due to chromatic effects. (c) Single GRIN lens-based assembly showing combination No. 4 (from Table 3). (d) SM beam spot size radius (right axis in red) and MM FWHM (left axis in blue). The dotted–dashed line represents the tissue surface, and the dashed line, the SM image plane.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber Specifications Describing the Modeled DCF

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters Used to Describe SM and MM Outputs

Tables Icon

Table 3. Simulation Results for a 7.5 mm Working Distance Single GRIN Lens-Based Probe

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω ( z ) = ω 0 1 + ( z z R ) 2 ,
Θ = λ / π ω 0 .
I ( x , y ) = I 0 exp [ 2 ( ( x ω x ) 2 + ( y ω y ) 2 ) ] ,
1 s i 1 s o = 1 f ,
L ( ρ , θ , ϕ , ψ ) = P 0 f ( ρ ) g ( ϕ ) , [ W / m 2    sr ]
2 π 0 f ( ρ ) ρ d ρ = 1 ;
2 π 0 π / 2 g ( ϕ ) sin ( ϕ ) d ϕ = 1 .
Ω S L d 2 Ω d 2 A = P 0 Ω g ( ϕ ) d 2 Ω S f ( ρ ) d 2 A = P 0 ( 2 π 0 π 2 g ( ϕ ) sin ( ϕ ) d ϕ ) ( 2 π 0 f ( ρ ) ρ d ρ ) = P 0 ,
L 1 ( ρ , θ , ϕ , ψ ) = { P 0 A ic Ω c , for    ρ D ic 2 and ϕ ϕ c , 0 , otherwise ,
NA = n sin ϕ c ,
g ( ϕ ) = C c J 0 ( 2.405 ϕ ϕ c ) ,
L 2 ( ρ , θ , ϕ , ψ ) = { C c P 0 A ic J 0 ( 2.405 ϕ ϕ c ) , for    ρ D ic 2 and ϕ ϕ c , 0 , otherwise .
C ( z ) = 4 4 + ( λ D ( z ) / π ω 0 2 ) 2 ,

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