Abstract

The characterization of an amplified piezoelectric actuator (APA) as a new axial scanning method for multiple-reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is described. MR-OCT is a compact optical imaging device based on a recirculating reference-arm-scanning optical delay using a partial mirror that can enhance the imaging depth range by more than 10 times the reference mirror’s scanning amplitude. The scanning amplitude of the used APA was varied between 30 μm and 250 μm, depending on the scanning frequency of between 0.8 kHz and 1.2 kHz. A silver-coated miniature mirror was attached to the APA via ultraviolet-cured optical adhesive, and the light source was a super-luminescent diode with 1310 nm center wavelength and 56 nm bandwidth. The sensitivity was measured with and without the partial mirror in the reference delay line as a function of scan speed, frequency, and range, therefore providing results for MR-OCT and TD-OCT modes. It was found that the APA provides more than twice the mechanical scanning range compared to other opto-mechanic actuators, but results indicate degradation of signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity at larger imaging depths. In conjunction with MR-OCT, the scan range of maximum 200 μm can be enhanced up to 1–1.5 mm by using a reduced amount of orders of reflections, which could be of interest to increase sensitivity in the future.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2010 (1)

R. Sharon, R. Friedman, and I. Abdulhalim, “Multilayered scattering reference mirror for full field optical coherence tomography with application to cell profiling,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4122–4125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Rapid scanning all-reflective optical delay line for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 80–82 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

R. Sharon, R. Friedman, and I. Abdulhalim, “Multilayered scattering reference mirror for full field optical coherence tomography with application to cell profiling,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4122–4125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alexandrov, S. A.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Birngruber, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cobb, M. J.

Collins, S.

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dsouza, R.

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. M. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “3D nondestructive testing system with an affordable multiple reference optical-delay-based optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5634–5638 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dsouza, R. I.

R. I. Dsouza, “Towards low cost multiple reference optical coherence tomography for in vivo and NDT applications,” Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2016).

Engelhardt, R.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Friedman, R.

R. Sharon, R. Friedman, and I. Abdulhalim, “Multilayered scattering reference mirror for full field optical coherence tomography with application to cell profiling,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4122–4125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haskell, R. C.

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hoeling, B. M.

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hogan, J.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. M. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “3D nondestructive testing system with an affordable multiple reference optical-delay-based optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5634–5638 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hogan, J. N.

J. N. Hogan, “Multiple reference OCT system,” U.S. patent9,113,782B2 (25 August 2015).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer, 2002).

Izatt, J. A.

Kantamneni, R.

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leahy, M.

Leahy, M. J.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

McNamara, P. M.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neuhaus, K.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. M. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “3D nondestructive testing system with an affordable multiple reference optical-delay-based optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5634–5638 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Gorman, S.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

O’Riordan, C.

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Peter, M. E.

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petersen, D. C.

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rao, K. D.

Rosperich, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sharon, R.

R. Sharon, R. Friedman, and I. Abdulhalim, “Multilayered scattering reference mirror for full field optical coherence tomography with application to cell profiling,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4122–4125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. W.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Subhash, H.

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref]

Subhash, H. M.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wilson, C.

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. M. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “3D nondestructive testing system with an affordable multiple reference optical-delay-based optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5634–5638 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yazdanfar, S.

Zara, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

P. M. McNamara, R. Dsouza, C. O’Riordan, S. Collins, P. O’Brien, C. Wilson, J. Hogan, and M. J. Leahy, “Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device,’ J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 126020 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Neuhaus, S. O’Gorman, P. M. McNamara, S. A. Alexandrov, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. J. Leahy, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of multiple layers with multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 086006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, R. Kantamneni, P. M. McNamara, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Assessment of curing behavior of light-activated dental composites using intensity correlation based multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 77–82 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Sharon, R. Friedman, and I. Abdulhalim, “Multilayered scattering reference mirror for full field optical coherence tomography with application to cell profiling,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4122–4125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. M. Hoeling, M. E. Peter, D. C. Petersen, and R. C. Haskell, “Improved phase modulation for an en-face scanning three-dimensional optical coherence microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3348–3350 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer, 2002).

J. N. Hogan, “Multiple reference OCT system,” U.S. patent9,113,782B2 (25 August 2015).

R. I. Dsouza, “Towards low cost multiple reference optical coherence tomography for in vivo and NDT applications,” Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2016).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Components: L, lenses; SLD, super-luminescent diode; BS, beam splitter; SRM, scanning reference mirror; PM, partial mirror; PD, photodetector; PZT/VC, piezoelectric actuator (or voice coil) with reference mirror attached; TM, turning mirror. Seven scanned ranges in depth are indicated (blue) based on seven orders of reference reflections resulting in a total scan range of zMRO, and the spacing D between the SRM and PM. The “space” occurs due to the scan range being smaller than the D, as otherwise, the SRM would touch the PM.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Sensitivity of TD signal versus reference attenuation (OD).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Resonance curve of the scan range at different scan frequencies with constant voltage.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sensitivity measured at different frequencies with constant scan range.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Sensitivity measured at 975 Hz with increasing scan range.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Roll-off of sensitivity versus order.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Doppler frequency versus order.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of the APA in TD mode and MR-OCT mode at about 950 Hz versus results of a first generation MR-OCT voice coil (VC 1G) at 300 Hz [14]. The roll-off for the TD mode of the APA spans about 200 μm as specified at resonance from about 110 dB sensitivity. To allow proper placement of the PM, the scan range was reduced, by operating off resonance, which resulted in a lower sensitivity. Notwithstanding, the sensitivity of the APA matches that of a first generation VC at three times the scan speed.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

lc=4ln2πλ02Δλ,
Δz=2ln2πλ02Δλ.
Δx=4λ0πfd.
SNR=20log10(Pσ),
S(N)=SNR(N)+2×OD,
z(t)=Acos(ωSRMt+ϕ),
vz(t)=AωSRMsin(ωSRMt+ϕ),
fD=2v¯Mλ0.
f^D(N)=4AπfSRMNλ0.
A=fDλ04NπfSRM,

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