Abstract

We report a solar pumped solid state laser using a 20 mm long, 3 mm diameter neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser rod. This rod was placed in a liquid cooling chamber using a water–white-emulsion-paint mix. This mix provides cooling for the laser crystal and also doubles as a diffuse light scattering liquid. This enhances sunlight scattering and leads to a greater absorption in the laser rod. We numerically model the solar absorption in the laser rod using a ray-tracing model and predict a 2.6 times enhancement in absorption when a 98% reflective diffuse scatter is modelled compared to 0% scattering. We experimentally demonstrated this, showing a 2.58 times increase in average output power of the solar laser compared to the use of pure water as a cooling liquid. Using the water–white-paint scattering cooling liquid, we demonstrated a laser with an output power of 2.3 W and with a collection efficiency of 27.5  W/m2.

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Almeida, D. Liang, C. R. Vistas, and E. Guillot, “Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1970–1977 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  16. M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 574–580 (1986).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Almeida, D. Liang, C. R. Vistas, and E. Guillot, “Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1970–1977 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2007 (1)

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 574–580 (1986).
[Crossref]

1966 (2)

Almeida, J.

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, C. R. Vistas, and E. Guillot, “Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1970–1977 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Angelov, I. P.

Baasandash, C.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Behgol, B.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benitez, P.

R. Winston, J. C. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).

Daito, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Datsuyk, V. V.

Denchev, O. E.

Dimov, S. S.

Dinh, T. H.

Dobrusin, V.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Funatsu, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guillot, E.

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, C. R. Vistas, and E. Guillot, “Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1970–1977 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, K.

Hwang, G. W.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

Juodkazis, S.

Kagan, J.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuboyama, H.

Kurtev, S. Z.

Lando, M.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, C. R. Vistas, and E. Guillot, “Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1970–1977 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Linyekin, B.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mabuti, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mangir, M. S.

M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 574–580 (1986).
[Crossref]

Milev, I. Y.

Minano, J. C.

R. Winston, J. C. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).

Misawa, H.

Mizuno, S.

Motokoshi, S.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nechayev, S.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

Ohkubo, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oishi, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oyama, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reusswig, P. D.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rockwell, D. A.

M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 574–580 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rotschild, C.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scherer, J. M.

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shwartz, J.

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[Crossref]

Skinner, D. R.

Suzuki, T.

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998).

Uchida, S.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vistas, C. R.

Vistasa, C. R.

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weksler, M.

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[Crossref]

Whittle, J.

Winston, R.

R. Winston, J. C. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).

Yabe, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, M.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Young, C. G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, K. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 574–580 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. D. Reusswig, S. Nechayev, J. M. Scherer, G. W. Hwang, M. G. Bawendi, M. A. Baldo, and C. Rotschild, “A path to practical solar pumped lasers via radiative energy transfer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14758 (2015).
[Crossref]

Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. Liang, J. Almeida, C. R. Vistasa, and E. Guillot, “Solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 31.5  W/m2 multimode and 7.9  W/m2 TEM00-mode collection efficiencies,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 435–439 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Winston, J. C. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Springer, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Two-dimensional (2D) example of the ray-tracing computer model [(a) from top, looking down through model and (b) from side on, looking through the mode]. Rays are generated on the top surface of the figures and travel through the model. In this example five rays were used. Their pathways through the model are represented as green lines with the red lines indicating their final pass (either being absorbed or lost at this point).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Modelled solar absorption in the Nd:YAG rod as a function of reflectivity of the diffuse scatterer in contact with the side wall of the rod. The absorption as a function of the ray incident angle for 98% (red) and 0% (black) diffuse reflectivity is shown in the inset.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Modelled solar absorption distribution in the 20 mm long, 3 mm wide Nd:YAG rod with a 98% diffuse reflector surrounding the rod (top) and 0% reflectivity (bottom). Light is input from the right.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Modelled laser output power as a function of solar power entering the 20 mm long, 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod for 98% reflectivity scatterer (red line) and 0% diffuse scatterer (black line).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the laser cavity, Nd:YAG rod, and cooling/scattering liquid chamber. (b) Photograph of the experimental solar laser in operation. The inset and red box correspond to the parts of the laser shown in part (a).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Laser output power (left axis) and collection efficiency (right axis) versus total solar power hitting the front surface of the Fresnel lens for both water (black squares) and water–paint (red circles) cooling liquids. (b) Spectral reading of solar pumped laser operating above the threshold (black line with squares) and below the threshold (red line).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Modelled (black line) and experimental (red dots) laser power as a function of power entering the laser rod accounting for the 70% loss of sunlight from the collection optics path.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Experimentally Measured Loss from Each Component in the Sunlight Collection Path

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