Abstract

In this study, we describe the fabrication of a high-resolution directional volumetric display that can display multiple images in different directions. The display designs can be used to show animations using strings; however, improving the resolution of such displays is difficult. Previously, the arrangement of strings has only been determined experimentally, making fabrication of volumetric displays a challenge. The goal of the present study is to improve resolution using simulations and to determine the arrangement of strings under three constraints. This simplified the fabrication of a directional volumetric display with 345 strings, which can display two different 20×20  pixel images in two different directions. A large high-resolution directional volumetric display can be fabricated using the proposed method. The string-type display has high artistic potential and is expected to find applications in the amusement and entertainment fields.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. D. R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Basic Books, 1979).
  2. N. J. Mitra and M. Pauly, “Shadow art,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 156 (2009).
  3. B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. L. MacFarlane, “Volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7453–7457 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. E. Favalora, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38, 37–44 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Holroyd, I. Barzn, J. Lawrence, and W. Matusik, “Computing and fabricating multilayer models,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 187.
  8. A. Yagi, M. Imura, Y. Kuroda, and O. Oshiro, “360-degree fog projection interactive display,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia–Emerging Technologies, Hong Kong, China, 2011.
  9. A. Sand and I. Rakkolainen, “A hand-held immaterial volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 90110Q (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2010, p. 76.
  11. M. Parker, “Lumarca,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia—Art Gallery & Emerging Technologies: Adaptation, Yokohama, Japan, 2009.
  12. H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Vancouver, Canada, 2011, p. 95.
  17. G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2012, p. 80.
  18. L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.
  19. R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sand and I. Rakkolainen, “A hand-held immaterial volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 90110Q (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. J. Mitra and M. Pauly, “Shadow art,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 156 (2009).

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

G. E. Favalora, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38, 37–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barnum, P. C.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2010, p. 76.

Barzn, I.

M. Holroyd, I. Barzn, J. Lawrence, and W. Matusik, “Computing and fabricating multilayer models,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 187.

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, L. W.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

Chen, M. Y.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

Cossairt, O. S.

Dorval, R. K.

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Vancouver, Canada, 2011, p. 95.

Hill, S. L.

Hirayama, R.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2012, p. 80.

Hofstadter, D. R.

D. R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Basic Books, 1979).

Holroyd, M.

M. Holroyd, I. Barzn, J. Lawrence, and W. Matusik, “Computing and fabricating multilayer models,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 187.

Horrell, D. K.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hsu, J.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

Hung, Y. P.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

Ichihashi, Y.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Imura, M.

A. Yagi, M. Imura, Y. Kuroda, and O. Oshiro, “360-degree fog projection interactive display,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia–Emerging Technologies, Hong Kong, China, 2011.

Ito, T.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kakue, T.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kanade, T.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2010, p. 76.

Kao, H. S.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

Kuroda, Y.

A. Yagi, M. Imura, Y. Kuroda, and O. Oshiro, “360-degree fog projection interactive display,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia–Emerging Technologies, Hong Kong, China, 2011.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2012, p. 80.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Vancouver, Canada, 2011, p. 95.

Lawrence, J.

M. Holroyd, I. Barzn, J. Lawrence, and W. Matusik, “Computing and fabricating multilayer models,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 187.

Lee, M. S.

L. W. Chan, H. S. Kao, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Lee, J. Hsu, and Y. P. Hung, “Touching the void: direct-touch interaction for intangible displays,” in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, 2010.

MacFarlane, D. L.

Masuda, N.

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matusik, W.

M. Holroyd, I. Barzn, J. Lawrence, and W. Matusik, “Computing and fabricating multilayer models,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 187.

Mitra, N. J.

N. J. Mitra and M. Pauly, “Shadow art,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 156 (2009).

Nakayama, H.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Napoli, J.

Narasimhan, S. G.

P. C. Barnum, S. G. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2010, p. 76.

Naruse, M.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oi, R.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oshiro, O.

A. Yagi, M. Imura, Y. Kuroda, and O. Oshiro, “360-degree fog projection interactive display,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia–Emerging Technologies, Hong Kong, China, 2011.

Parker, M.

M. Parker, “Lumarca,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia—Art Gallery & Emerging Technologies: Adaptation, Yokohama, Japan, 2009.

Pauly, M.

N. J. Mitra and M. Pauly, “Shadow art,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 156 (2009).

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rakkolainen, I.

A. Sand and I. Rakkolainen, “A hand-held immaterial volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 90110Q (2014).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2012, p. 80.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Vancouver, Canada, 2011, p. 95.

Sand, A.

A. Sand and I. Rakkolainen, “A hand-held immaterial volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 90110Q (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Senoh, T.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimobaba, T.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shiraki, A.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

R. Hirayama, T. Suzuki, T. Shimobaba, A. Shiraki, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tate, N.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wakunami, K.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Vancouver, Canada, 2011, p. 95.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, California, 2012, p. 80.

Yagi, A.

A. Yagi, M. Imura, Y. Kuroda, and O. Oshiro, “360-degree fog projection interactive display,” in ACM SIGGRAPH Asia–Emerging Technologies, Hong Kong, China, 2011.

Yamamoto, K.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

N. J. Mitra and M. Pauly, “Shadow art,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 156 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Computer (1)

G. E. Favalora, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38, 37–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eng. Sci. Educ. J. (1)

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, and D. K. Horrell, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system: their past, present and future,” Eng. Sci. Educ. J. 2, 196–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495, 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Sand and I. Rakkolainen, “A hand-held immaterial volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 90110Q (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (5)

H. Nakayama, A. Shiraki, R. Hirayama, N. Masuda, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1931 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, R. Oi, and T. Senoh, “Large size three-dimensional video by electronic holography using multiple spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6177 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Projection results of the directional volumetric display.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Four types of fabricated directional volumetric displays. (a) Three-dimensional (3D) crystal-type display; (b) light-emitting diode (LED)-type display; (c) quantum dot (QD)-type display; (d) string-type display. Source of (a), (b), and (d): Nakayama et al. [12]. Source of (c): Hirayama et al. [19].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Correspondence between string and ray.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation flow chart for deciding string arrangement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Judging whether a string is illuminated by a ray.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Our directional volumetric display. (a) Configuration of the display; (b) relation between the arrangement of strings and displayed image.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Conceptual diagram of height adjustment.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Directional volumetric display. (a) Simulation and actual results for the arrangement of strings; (b) directional volumetric display comprising 345 strings.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Projected and obtained images. (a) Front view of the original image, (b) side view of the original image, (c) front view of the simulated image, (d) side view of the simulated image, (e) image acquired from a frontal view, (f) image acquired from a side view, (g) projected image, and (h) image acquired from an oblique angle.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Improved projection method using multiple projectors. (a) States that cannot be achieved by a single projector; (b) state that can be achieved using multiple projectors.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of simulation results. (a) Case wherein one projector is used; (b) case wherein two projectors are used.

Equations (6)

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(αk1αt)(αk2αt)<0.
Vijk=λaijbkj,
Aij=k=1RVijk=λaij(b1j+b2j++bRj),
Bkj=i=1PVijk=λbkj(a1j+a2j++aPj).
ht=ht0αt(zzf),
hb=hb0αb(zzd).

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