Abstract

Microscopes aimed at detecting cellular life in extreme environments such as ocean-bearing solar system moons must provide high resolution in a compact, robust instrument. Here, we consider the resolution optimization of a compact off-axis lensless digital holographic microscope (DHM) that consists of a sample placed between an input point-source pair and a detector array. Two optimal high-resolution regimes are identified at opposite extremes—a low-magnification regime with the sample located near a small-pixel detector array, and a high-magnification regime with the sample near the input plane. In the former, resolution improves with smaller pixels, while in the latter, the effect of the finite pixel size is obviated, and the spatial resolution improves with detector array size. Using an off-axis lensless DHM with a 2k×2k array of 5.5 μm-pixels in the high-magnification regime, and standard aberration correction software, a resolution of 0.95  μm has been demonstrated, a factor of 5.8 smaller than the pixel size. Our analysis further suggests that with yet larger detector arrays, a lensless DHM should be capable of near wavelength-scale resolution.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2017 (1)

M. Bedrosian, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “Digital holographic microscopy, a method for detection of microorganisms in plume samples from Enceladus and other icy worlds,” Astrobiology 17, 913–925 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16, 755–774 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, C. Lindensmith, K. Wallace, and J. Nadeau, “Compact, lensless digital holgraphic microscope for remote microbiology,” Opt. Express 24, 28540–28548 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kuhn, B. Niraula, K. Liewer, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, E. Graff, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “A Mach–Zehnder digital holographic microscope with sub-micrometer resolution for imaging and tracking of marine micro-organisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123113 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analisys on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Remacha, B. S. Nickerson, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Tomography by point source digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 3520–3527 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (6)

J. Watson, “Submersible digital holographic cameras and their application to marine science,” Opt. Eng. 50, 091313 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Q. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point of care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6, 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, D. D. Blankenship, G. W. Patterson, and P. M. Schenk, “Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa,” Nature 479, 502–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Sato and O. Murata, “Lens-less holographic microscope with high resolving power and no-distortion,” Proc. SPIE 7904, 790402 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. P. Kelly, B. M. Hennelly, N. Pandey, and T. J. Naughton, “Resolution limits in practical digital holographic systems,” Opt. Eng. 48, 095801 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. P. O. Juptner, “Application of digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro-optical components,” Proc. SPIE 4398, 189–198 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

R. W. Meier, “Magnification and third-order aberrations in holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 987–992 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. W. Stroke, “Lensless Fourier-transform method for optical holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 201–203 (1965).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. W.

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asmar, S. W.

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aspert, N.

Bedrosian, M.

M. Bedrosian, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “Digital holographic microscopy, a method for detection of microorganisms in plume samples from Enceladus and other icy worlds,” Astrobiology 17, 913–925 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bedrossian, M.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belton, M. J. S.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bishara, W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blankenship, D. D.

B. E. Schmidt, D. D. Blankenship, G. W. Patterson, and P. M. Schenk, “Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa,” Nature 479, 502–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brumley, D. R.

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 761–775 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burns, J. A.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carr, M. H.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chapman, C. R.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Charriere, F.

Chen, Q.

Colomb, T.

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Charriere, J. Kuhn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 851–863 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Colomb, “Numerical aberrations compensation and polarization imaging in digital holographic microscopy,” thesis no. 3455 (Institut d’imagerie et optique appliquée, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2006).

Coskun, A. F.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T.-W. Su, Z. Gorocs, L. Xue, S. O. Isakman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9, 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cuche, E.

Cullen, D.

Davies, A. S.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Nicola, S.

Deming, J.

Deming, J. W.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16, 755–774 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

Demirci, U.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Q. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point of care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6, 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref]

Depeursinge, C.

Di Carlo, D.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analisys on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ducci, M.

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Egli, M.

Erlinger, A.

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, V. I.

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M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
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Senske, D.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, C. Lindensmith, K. Wallace, and J. Nadeau, “Compact, lensless digital holgraphic microscope for remote microbiology,” Opt. Express 24, 28540–28548 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kuhn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23, 17367–17378 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kuhn, B. Niraula, K. Liewer, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, E. Graff, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “A Mach–Zehnder digital holographic microscope with sub-micrometer resolution for imaging and tracking of marine micro-organisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Showalter, G.

Showalter, G. M.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Solem, J. C.

Son, K.

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 761–775 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, D. J.

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stocker, R.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16, 755–774 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 761–775 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, “Lensless Fourier-transform method for optical holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 201–203 (1965).
[Crossref]

Su, T. W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Su, T.-W.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analisys on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T.-W. Su, Z. Gorocs, L. Xue, S. O. Isakman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9, 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, R.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Thomas, P.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tiziani, H. J.

Tortora, P.

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toy, M. F.

Tseng, D.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tseng, D. K.

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tufts, B. R.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Upatnieks, J.

Vander Lugt, A.

Veverka, J.

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wallace, J. K.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kuhn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23, 17367–17378 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kuhn, B. Niraula, K. Liewer, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, E. Graff, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “A Mach–Zehnder digital holographic microscope with sub-micrometer resolution for imaging and tracking of marine micro-organisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallace, K.

Wang, S. Q.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Q. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point of care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6, 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watson, J.

J. Watson, “Submersible digital holographic cameras and their application to marine science,” Opt. Eng. 50, 091313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weaver, W.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analisys on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Q. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point of care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6, 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 836–850 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xue, L.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T.-W. Su, Z. Gorocs, L. Xue, S. O. Isakman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9, 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, F. W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, J.

Zuo, C.

Appl. Opt. (9)

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J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 836–850 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Charriere, J. Kuhn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 851–863 (2006).
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W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fourier-transform holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4973–4978 (1992).
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M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Kanka, and R. Riesenberg, “Quantitative phase and refractive index measurements with point-source digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1503–1515 (2012).
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C. Remacha, B. S. Nickerson, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Tomography by point source digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 3520–3527 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. W. Stroke, “Lensless Fourier-transform method for optical holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 201–203 (1965).
[Crossref]

Astrobiology (2)

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16, 755–774 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bedrosian, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “Digital holographic microscopy, a method for detection of microorganisms in plume samples from Enceladus and other icy worlds,” Astrobiology 17, 913–925 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biotechnol. J. (1)

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Q. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point of care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6, 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref]

FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (1)

J. G. Mitchell and K. Kogure, “Bacterial motility: links to the environment and a driving force for microbial physics,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 55, 3–16 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lab Chip (3)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11, 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9, 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10, 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T.-W. Su, Z. Gorocs, L. Xue, S. O. Isakman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9, 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (1)

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 761–775 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. H. Carr, M. J. S. Belton, C. R. Chapman, A. S. Davies, P. Geissler, R. Greenberg, A. S. McEwen, B. R. Tufts, R. Greeley, R. Sullivan, J. W. Head, R. T. Pappalardo, K. P. Klaasen, T. V. Johnson, J. Kaufman, D. Senske, J. Moore, G. Neukum, G. Schubert, J. A. Burns, P. Thomas, and J. Veverka, “Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa,” Nature 391, 363–365 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, D. D. Blankenship, G. W. Patterson, and P. M. Schenk, “Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa,” Nature 479, 502–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Watson, “Submersible digital holographic cameras and their application to marine science,” Opt. Eng. 50, 091313 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. P. Kelly, B. M. Hennelly, N. Pandey, and T. J. Naughton, “Resolution limits in practical digital holographic systems,” Opt. Eng. 48, 095801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS ONE (1)

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS ONE 11, e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Sato and O. Murata, “Lens-less holographic microscope with high resolving power and no-distortion,” Proc. SPIE 7904, 790402 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. P. O. Juptner, “Application of digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro-optical components,” Proc. SPIE 4398, 189–198 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Kuhn, B. Niraula, K. Liewer, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, E. Graff, C. Lindensmith, and J. L. Nadeau, “A Mach–Zehnder digital holographic microscope with sub-micrometer resolution for imaging and tracking of marine micro-organisms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analisys on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. Iess, D. J. Stevenson, M. Parisi, D. Hemingway, R. A. Jacobson, J. I. Lunine, F. Nimmo, J. W. Armstrong, S. W. Asmar, M. Ducci, and P. Tortora, “The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus,” Science 344, 78–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

NASA Europa Lander Report, https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/docs/Europa_Lander_SDT_Report_2016.pdf (2016).

M. K. Kim, Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

J. W. Goodman, Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company, 2005), Sect. 9.6.1.

http://www.lynceetec.com/koala-acquisition-analysis/ .

T. Kreis, Handbook of Holographic Interferometry, Optical and Digital Methods (Wiley, 2005), Sect. 3.6.2.

T. Colomb, “Numerical aberrations compensation and polarization imaging in digital holographic microscopy,” thesis no. 3455 (Institut d’imagerie et optique appliquée, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Lensless DHM configuration considered here. Two closely spaced coplanar point sources in the “input plane” illuminate a detector array at a distance f. The input-plane to sample distance is fs. For small fs, the reference beam bypasses the sample, while for large fs, both input beams traverse the sample. The scattered beam from the sample is not shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effects of magnification between the sample plane and the detector plane, and the converse pixel demagnification.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the incoherent and coherent resolutions on the sample to detector distance (s) for N=2048, p=3.45  μm, and an input-plane to detector distance (f) of 30 mm. The line rising left to right (including both the dotted and solid segments) gives the incoherent resolution (labeled “inc”). The coherent resolution (“coh”) is given by the combination of the falling dashed line for s<st, and the rising solid line for s>st. The solid line segment covers the region where the incoherent and coherent resolutions are both given by the NA of the full array, while the dashed segment shows the degradation of the coherent resolution due to the reduction in the array’s effective size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the coherent resolution on sample-to-detector distance (s) for a number of pixel sizes, p (given near the right side), and a fixed 30 mm input-plane to detector distance. The two panels give the resolutions for array sizes of (a) N=2048  pixels, and (b) N=4096  pixels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Best resolution Δt[from Eq. (18)] as a function of pixel size, for N=1024 (solid line), 2048 (dotted line) and 4096 (dashed line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Magnification of the sample on the detector, as a function of the sample distance, s, for an input-plane to detector distance of 30 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of the coherent resolution on sample-to-detector distance, s, for N=2048, a 20 mm input-plane to detector distance, and a number of pixel sizes (given near the right-hand side).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Picture of our lensless DHM (left). The yellow SM input fiber at the bottom feeds the cylindrical “source assembly,” which contains a collimating lens and a pair of GRIN lenses in an opaque disk [19], as shown in the schematic diagram on the right. The glass sample can be raised by means of spacer rings (not shown). The camera is mounted on a vertical translation stage. The system length is on the order of 10 cm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Post-calibration reconstructed image of an Air Force target obtained with the lensless DHM of Fig. 8, which used a pixel size of 5.5 μm, an input-plane to detector distance of 32  mm, and an input-plane to sample distance of 1  mm.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δi=λ2  NA.
NAi=Np2s,
Δi=sλNp,
ψ=kρ22z,
ϕ=kρ22skρ22f,
ϕ=πρ2λ(1s1f).
dϕdρ=2πρλ(1s1f).
1p=2ρcλ(1s1f),
ρc=λ2psffs.
NAc=ρcs,
NAc=λ2pffs
Δc=pfsf.
NAc=Np2s,
Δc=sλNp,
1st=1f+λNp2,
st=f1+fλNp2.
1Δt=1p+Npfλ,
Δt=p1+Np2fλ.
m=ffs.
Δp=pm=pfsf.
FOV=Npfsf=Npm,
f>2bpλ.
b<fλ2p,

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