Abstract

This paper addresses computer numerical control (CNC) polishing of aspheric or freeform optics. Prior CNC grinding of the asphere tends to produce mid-spatial frequencies (MSFs) at some level. Precessions polishing can rectify these, but the very ability of the bonnet tooling to adapt to the local asphere enables it to do so, at least in part, to similar spatial frequencies in the MSFs. To accelerate smoothing, hard tools can, in principle, be used, but aspheric misfit is often assumed to preclude this. In this paper, we explore new insight into the role of abrasive particle size in accommodating misfit. First, we report on a glass-bending rig to produce a continuous range of complex surfaces, while withstanding process forces. Then, we describe how this was used to evaluate the triangle of misfit, abrasive size, and MSFs produced for hard rotating tools. This has revealed a regime in which such tools can be used without introducing significant new MSFs, as evidenced by manufacture of prototype off-axis aspheric segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope project.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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  1. X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Li, D. Walker, G. Yu, and W. Zhang, “Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5781–5787 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. C. West, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, R. S. Young, W. B. Davison, T. J. Trebisky, S. T. DeRigne, and B. B. Hille, “Practical design and performance of the stressed-lap polishing tool,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8094–8100 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. W. Kim and J. H. Burge, “Rigid conformal polishing tool using non-linear visco-elastic effect,” Opt. Express 18, 2242–2257 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).
  9. D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Yu, D. Walker, and H. Li, “Implementing a grolishing process in Zeeko IRP machines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6637–6640 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. H.-Y. Wu, “Statistical approach to control output surfaces from the robotic grolishing process.”
  18. P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. J. Thompson, R. Lang, P. Rees, and G. W. Roberts, “Reconstruction of a conic-section surface from autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2827–2836 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Thompson, R. Lang, P. Rees, and G. W. Roberts, “Reconstruction of a conic-section surface from autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2827–2836 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. Walker, G. Yu, and W. Zhang, “Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5781–5787 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. W. Kim and J. H. Burge, “Rigid conformal polishing tool using non-linear visco-elastic effect,” Opt. Express 18, 2242–2257 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1994 (1)

Atkins, C.

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baker, I.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beaucamp, A.

D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Beaucamp, A. T. H.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bibby, M.

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

Brooks, D.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burge, J. H.

Cassie, M. D.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Comley, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davies, G.

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

Davison, W. B.

DeRigne, S. T.

Doubrovski, V.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dunn, C.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Evans, R.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Field, N.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

Fox-Leonard, T.

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R.

D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Freeman, R. R.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gray, C.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

Hamidi, S.

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harris, P.

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hille, B. B.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S.-W.

King, A.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lang, R.

Li, H.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. Walker, G. Yu, and W. Zhang, “Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5781–5787 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, D. Walker, and H. Li, “Implementing a grolishing process in Zeeko IRP machines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6637–6640 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

Libert, M.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

Marek, A.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Martin, H. M.

McCavana, G.

D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Messelink, W.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, J.

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morantz, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morton, R.

D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Nagel, R. H.

Parry-Jones, M.

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rees, P.

S. J. Thompson, R. Lang, P. Rees, and G. W. Roberts, “Reconstruction of a conic-section surface from autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2827–2836 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Riley, D.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Roberts, G. W.

Shore, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Simms, J.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S. J.

Tonnellier, X.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Trebisky, T. J.

Volkov, A.

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waine, S.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

Walker, D.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. Walker, G. Yu, and W. Zhang, “Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5781–5787 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, D. Walker, and H. Li, “Implementing a grolishing process in Zeeko IRP machines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6637–6640 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

Walker, D. D.

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and A. Beaucamp, “Use of the ‘Precessions’ process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2½D form,” Opt. Express 14, 11787–11795 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S.-W. Kim, “The precessions tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[Crossref]

West, S. C.

Wu, H. Y.

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Wu, “Statistical approach to control output surfaces from the robotic grolishing process.”

Young, R. S.

Yu, G.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. Walker, G. Yu, and W. Zhang, “Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5781–5787 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, D. Walker, and H. Li, “Implementing a grolishing process in Zeeko IRP machines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6637–6640 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, G. Y.

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zheng, X.

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Res. (1)

D. Walker, G. Davies, T. Fox-Leonard, C. Gray, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, H. Y. Wu, A. Volkov, and G. Y. Yu, “Advanced abrasive processes for manufacturing prototype mirror segments for the world’s largest telescope,” Adv. Mater. Res. 1017, 532–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. (1)

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.–Manuf. Technol. 60, 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

H. Li, G. Yu, D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modelling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 110481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (7)

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773905 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Atkins, I. Baker, R. Evans, S. Hamidi, P. Harris, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, M. Parry-Jones, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 4–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Gray, I. Baker, G. Davies, R. Evans, N. Field, T. Fox-Leonard, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, S. Waine, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing,” Proc. SPIE 8838, 88380K (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Wu, G. Yu, D. Walker, X. Zheng, H. Li, C. Dunn, and C. Gray, “Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools,” Proc. SPIE 9912, 99123Q (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, C. Dunn, G. Yu, M. Bibby, X. Zheng, H. Y. Wu, H. Li, and C. Lu, “The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics,” Proc. SPIE 9575, 95750B (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, D. Brooks, V. Doubrovski, M. D. Cassie, C. Dunn, R. R. Freeman, A. King, M. Libert, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, and J. Simms, “Recent developments of precessions polishing for larger components and free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 281–289 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Li, D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Development of swinging part profilometer for optics,” Proc. SPIE 10151, 101510B (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

H.-Y. Wu, “Statistical approach to control output surfaces from the robotic grolishing process.”

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Freeman, A. Marek, G. McCavana, R. Morton, and D. Riley, “First results on freeform polishing using the precessions process,” in “American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Winter Topical Meeting on Free-Form Optics: Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly,” CD-ROM (2004).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Glass-bending rig.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Procedures for using the glass-bending rig.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

More details of the 7 steps in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface with a strong cylindrical term created by the expanding Isopon effect, as measured by the CMM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fringes from test plate (a) without matt black paint and (b) with matt black paint.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Method of creating a saddle surface and (b) created PV 470  μm saddle surface measured by CMM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Robotic grolishing process and (b) IRP1200 polishing process.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Pad surface from the pre-grolishing process: (a) measurement directions of the pad surface and (b) pad surface profile.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Removal topography from the (a) 9 μm abrasive and (b) 20 μm abrasive grolishing process.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) 60 mm measured area in 180 mm field of interferometer and (b) MSF results after removing 35 Zernike terms.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison: (a) processed by the 9 μm and 20 μm abrasives, respectively, and (b) overlapping track space by the 5 mm and 10 mm, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Variables for Grolishing Saddle Surfaces to Investigate on Set of MSFs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Controlled Variables for the Post-Polishing Process for Sample Measurement

Metrics