Abstract

We present a new fabrication method for optical surfaces using liquid metal molding. Common optical surfaces are fabricated by the polishing of glasses or plastics. By contrast, the fabrication method we propose involves the transfer of a spherical surface of liquid molded metal with silicone rubber. The concept presented in this paper is of a new molding method in which a mold is placed inside. The curvature can be controlled from 0.37  mm1 to 0.37  mm1 by wetting the liquid metal. An application of this method is to produce on-demand optical elements (e.g., lenses and mirrors).

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).
  2. R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Chen, C. Gu, H. Lin, and S. C. Chen, “Soft mold-based hot embossing process for precision imprinting of optical components on non-planar surfaces,” Opt. Express 23, 20977–20985 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. M. Lee, A. Upadhya, P. J. Reece, and T. G. Phan, “Fabricating low cost and high performance elastomer lenses using hanging droplets,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1626–1635 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. W. G. White, “The surface tensions of indium and cadmium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 1933–1936 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Aqra and A. Ayyad, “Surface tension of pure liquid bismuth and its temperature dependence: theoretical calculations,” Mater. Lett. 65, 760–762 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. W. Extrand and S. I. Moon, “When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened,” Langmuir 26, 11815–11822 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. C. Hardy, “The surface tension of liquid gallium,” J. Cryst. Growth 71, 602–606 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Salmas and G. Androutsopoulos, “Mercury porosimetry: contact angle hysteresis of materials with controlled pore structure,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239, 178–189 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. D. L. Breteque, “Gallium,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 56, 54–55 (1964).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Chen, C. Gu, H. Lin, and S. C. Chen, “Soft mold-based hot embossing process for precision imprinting of optical components on non-planar surfaces,” Opt. Express 23, 20977–20985 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Aqra and A. Ayyad, “Surface tension of pure liquid bismuth and its temperature dependence: theoretical calculations,” Mater. Lett. 65, 760–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. W. Extrand and S. I. Moon, “When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened,” Langmuir 26, 11815–11822 (2010).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Salmas and G. Androutsopoulos, “Mercury porosimetry: contact angle hysteresis of materials with controlled pore structure,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239, 178–189 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. C. Hardy, “The surface tension of liquid gallium,” J. Cryst. Growth 71, 602–606 (1985).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. W. G. White, “The surface tensions of indium and cadmium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 1933–1936 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

P. D. L. Breteque, “Gallium,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 56, 54–55 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ance, C.

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Androutsopoulos, G.

C. Salmas and G. Androutsopoulos, “Mercury porosimetry: contact angle hysteresis of materials with controlled pore structure,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239, 178–189 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aqra, F.

F. Aqra and A. Ayyad, “Surface tension of pure liquid bismuth and its temperature dependence: theoretical calculations,” Mater. Lett. 65, 760–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ayyad, A.

F. Aqra and A. Ayyad, “Surface tension of pure liquid bismuth and its temperature dependence: theoretical calculations,” Mater. Lett. 65, 760–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belsleyb, M.

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Breteque, P. D. L.

P. D. L. Breteque, “Gallium,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 56, 54–55 (1964).
[Crossref]

Carmoa, J. P.

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, S. C.

Cheyssac, P.

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Correia, J. H.

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Extrand, C. W.

C. W. Extrand and S. I. Moon, “When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened,” Langmuir 26, 11815–11822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferraton, J. P.

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gomesa, J. M.

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Hardy, S. C.

S. C. Hardy, “The surface tension of liquid gallium,” J. Cryst. Growth 71, 602–606 (1985).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, H.

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hirata, M.

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Homma, T.

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jackman, R. J.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jeang, J.

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kofman, R.

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. M.

Lin, H.

Moon, S. I.

C. W. Extrand and S. I. Moon, “When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened,” Langmuir 26, 11815–11822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morita, K.

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).

Nomada, H.

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).

Oki, Y.

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).

Phan, T. G.

Reece, P. J.

Richard, J.

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Rocha, R. P.

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Salmas, C.

C. Salmas and G. Androutsopoulos, “Mercury porosimetry: contact angle hysteresis of materials with controlled pore structure,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239, 178–189 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sekizawa, K.

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shih, W. C.

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, A.

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ueno, T.

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Upadhya, A.

White, D. W. G.

D. W. G. White, “The surface tensions of indium and cadmium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 1933–1936 (1972).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wilbur, J. L.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yoshioka, H.

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides, “Elastomeric optics,” Chem. Mater. 8, 1380–1385 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

P. D. L. Breteque, “Gallium,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 56, 54–55 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 047005 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

C. Salmas and G. Androutsopoulos, “Mercury porosimetry: contact angle hysteresis of materials with controlled pore structure,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 239, 178–189 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. C. Hardy, “The surface tension of liquid gallium,” J. Cryst. Growth 71, 602–606 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Occup. Health (1)

T. Homma, T. Ueno, K. Sekizawa, A. Tanaka, and M. Hirata, “Interstitial pneumonia developed in a worker dealing with particles containing indium-tin-oxide,” J. Occup. Health 45, 137–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

C. W. Extrand and S. I. Moon, “When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened,” Langmuir 26, 11815–11822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

F. Aqra and A. Ayyad, “Surface tension of pure liquid bismuth and its temperature dependence: theoretical calculations,” Mater. Lett. 65, 760–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Metall. Trans. (1)

D. W. G. White, “The surface tensions of indium and cadmium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 1933–1936 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Procedia Eng. (1)

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmoa, J. M. Gomesa, M. Belsleyb, and J. H. Correia, “Microlenses array made with AZ4562 photoresist for stereoscopic acquisition,” Procedia Eng. 47, 619–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. P. Ferraton, C. Ance, R. Kofman, P. Cheyssac, and J. Richard, “Reflectance and thermoreflectance of gallium,” Solid State Commun. 20, 49–52 (1976).
[Crossref]

Talanta (1)

H. Nomada, K. Morita, H. Higuchi, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Carbon-polydimethylsiloxane-based integratable optical technology for spectroscopic analysis,” Talanta 166, 428–432 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

K. Morita, H. Nomada, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Oki, “Platform of optical analysis device based carbon-polydimethylsiloxane compound for spectroscopic chamber integration on information terminal,” Light Edge43 (2015).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Surface shape of the droplet based on the relationship between the length of the capillary tube and the radius. (a) Spherical surface is formed under the condition of CL > R . (b) Flattened surface is formed when a droplet satisfies CL < R .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup and magnified images of the imprinted grating structure. (a)–(c) PDMS or liquid gallium was casted on the commercial grating or the PDMS grating, respectively. Image (d) shows the central part of the gallium grating. Image (f) shows the PDMS surface near the edge after gallium lifting off. Part 013 is located at the surface, the region below is on the edge. (e) and (g) is an enlarged view at 004 and 013. Table 2 is the energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) spectra at the locations 004 and 013. All images and data were obtained using a JCM-6000Plus (JEOL).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Droplet surface of solid gallium. (a) and (b) fabrication steps of a sample. (c) Top view of a solidified gallium droplet with gallium crystal contacting. The length of the scale bar is 1 mm. (d) Optical microscope image of droplet surface solidified in atmosphere. (e) A similar surface solidified in nitrogen. A roughness of 5.9 nm in rms was estimated by AFM (VN-8000, KEYENCE). (f) AFM data of a part in (d). (g) AFM data of a part in (d). (f) and (g) the length of x and y is 50 μm, and the length of z shows from (f) 0 to 8. × 10 6 or (g)  3. × 10 6 . The unit of z is m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup of push–pull injection. (a) PDMS chamber (height, 10 mm; diameter, 5 mm) was set on an aluminum plate, which was heated at 50°C. (b) and (c) The gallium was injected into the chamber through the path (diameter: 1 mm). The aluminum plate was heated, preventing solidification during injection. (d) The gallium was suctioned out from 0–40 μL after injecting. The contact end point was fixed using the pinning effect and only the spherical volume was changed. (e) Meniscus receding by suction of over 40 μL. (f) Solidification at 25°C.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Side-view images of the convex meniscus of gallium (solidified). The sucked-out volume is, respectively, (a) 0 μL, (b) 5 μL, (c) 10 μL, and (d) 15 μL. The scale bars show 2 mm. (e) The fitted curves of the profiles of the images showing the relationship between the curvature and emissions of the convex gallium. The right graphs were obtained from the processed images of the left photographs.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Effect to the convex and concave surface by volume expansion. (b)–(e) The macroscopic images of the concave meniscus obtained using the push–pull method for (b) gallium solidified in nitrogen, (c) PDMS cured with liquid phase gallium, (d) gallium solidified in uncured PDMS, (e) gallium solidified in solid PDMS, and (f) three-dimensional image of a part in (c) by AFM. The surface roughness was under 1 nm in rms. The length of x and y is 50 μm, and the length of z shows from 0 to 10 . × 10 6 . The unit of z is m.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Curvature versus extracted volume of gallium’s spherical surfaces. (b) and (c) Example images of grid lines with the largest curvature lens. These were photographed by attaching the lens to grid lines or a camera’s lens, respectively. The green points show the constant pitch, and the red ones are the detected cross points from the image. A negative lens fabricated by transferring concave gallium with a diameter = 5    mm , radius of curvature = 4.2    mm , thickness = 3    mm , focal length = 6.6    mm , F value = 2.1 , and NA = 0.498 . The scale bar is 1 mm in (b) or 2.5 mm in (c).

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Physical Properties of Liquid Metals

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Table 2. Element Content Ratio in 013 and 004

Equations (1)

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V = R Ga 3 3 π [ 2 ( 2 + d tube 2 / 4 R Ga 2 ) 1 d tube 2 / 4 R Ga 2 ] ,

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