Abstract

The helium–neon (HeNe) laser used to be a staple in every industrial or university lab having anything to do with photonics, as well as in numerous commercial products such as barcode scanners. They are now less common but still essential for many areas of research and education, and may turn up without any documentation. This paper describes an interesting experience of attempting to operate a HeNe laser without any prior information about its input–output specifications. A HeNe tube was encapsulated in a plastic cover with a copper-foil-wrapped power supply jack attached to it. It was like an optoelectronic gadget without any mention of its operating instructions, wiring, or power requirements. This HeNe laser was investigated as part of a research methods course case study. One week’s testing and investigation led us to conclude that the plasma tube was either defective due to mirror misalignment or internal contamination. As a result of this troubleshooting experience, a well-engineered investigation procedure was developed for testing HeNe lasers. A systematic approach helped to prioritize investigation of mirror alignment, mirror coating damage, possible debris inside the cavity, and power supply problems. General guidelines as well as this specific diagnostic experience can be very useful for laser technicians and engineers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. L. C. Lipus, M. Matus, and B. Acko, “Optimization of calibrating HeNe laser interferometers by sample-period simulation,” Int. J. Simul. Model. 12, 154–163 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).
  3. N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Multiline distributed feedback dye laser endorses Wien’s displacement law,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 3–9 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Electronic and photonic Communiqué Bottlenecks Mandate ultrafast optics,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 185–192 (2017).
  5. N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (3)

G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Electronic and photonic Communiqué Bottlenecks Mandate ultrafast optics,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 185–192 (2017).

N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).

2016 (1)

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Multiline distributed feedback dye laser endorses Wien’s displacement law,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 3–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. C. Lipus, M. Matus, and B. Acko, “Optimization of calibrating HeNe laser interferometers by sample-period simulation,” Int. J. Simul. Model. 12, 154–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

1998 (1)

W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “A compact iodine-stabilized HeNe laser and crossover resonances at 543  nm,” Opt. Commun. 156, 170–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1968 (1)

D. A. Leonard and W. R. Zinky, “Coherence properties of the superradiant 5401 Å pulsed neon laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 113–115 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abas, N.

N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Electronic and photonic Communiqué Bottlenecks Mandate ultrafast optics,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 185–192 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Multiline distributed feedback dye laser endorses Wien’s displacement law,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 3–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Acko, B.

L. C. Lipus, M. Matus, and B. Acko, “Optimization of calibrating HeNe laser interferometers by sample-period simulation,” Int. J. Simul. Model. 12, 154–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belforte, D.

G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).

Borsutzky, A.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Brand, H.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Brinkmann, U.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Cheng, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “A compact iodine-stabilized HeNe laser and crossover resonances at 543  nm,” Opt. Commun. 156, 170–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Engelbrecht, R.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Feitisch, A.

Franke, P.

Hansmann, S.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Hein, J.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Helmcke, J.

P. Franke, A. Feitisch, F. Riehle, K. Zhao, and J. Helmcke, “Simultaneous cw laser emission including a Raman line of a He–Ne laser at six wavelengths in the visible range,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3702–3707 (1989).
[Crossref]

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Henningsen, J.

Hillmer, H.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Holton, C.

G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).

Huber, G.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Kaiser, J.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Kalair, A.

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Electronic and photonic Communiqué Bottlenecks Mandate ultrafast optics,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 185–192 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Multiline distributed feedback dye laser endorses Wien’s displacement law,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 3–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalair, A. R.

N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).

Khan, N.

N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Electronic and photonic Communiqué Bottlenecks Mandate ultrafast optics,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 185–192 (2017).

N. Khan, N. Abas, and A. Kalair, “Multiline distributed feedback dye laser endorses Wien’s displacement law,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 3–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kück, S.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard and W. R. Zinky, “Coherence properties of the superradiant 5401 Å pulsed neon laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 113–115 (1968).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.

W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “A compact iodine-stabilized HeNe laser and crossover resonances at 543  nm,” Opt. Commun. 156, 170–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lipus, L. C.

L. C. Lipus, M. Matus, and B. Acko, “Optimization of calibrating HeNe laser interferometers by sample-period simulation,” Int. J. Simul. Model. 12, 154–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, D.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Longhi, S.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Malz, R.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Marowsky, G.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Matus, M.

L. C. Lipus, M. Matus, and B. Acko, “Optimization of calibrating HeNe laser interferometers by sample-period simulation,” Int. J. Simul. Model. 12, 154–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Nogee, A.

G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).

Overton, G.

G. Overton, A. Nogee, D. Belforte, and C. Holton, “Annual laser market review & forecast: where have all the lasers gone?” Laser Focus World 53, 1–24 (2017).

Peterson, A.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Pollnau, M.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Riehle, F.

Saldin, E.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Saleem, M. S.

N. Abas, A. R. Kalair, N. Khan, and M. S. Saleem, “Experimental study of optical fiber conditions in service on data communication,” Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. Concepts Mod. Opt. 48, 225–235 (2017).

Sauerbrey, R.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Schneidmiller, E.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Shy, J.-T.

W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “A compact iodine-stabilized HeNe laser and crossover resonances at 543  nm,” Opt. Commun. 156, 170–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sigrist, M.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Steinberg, S.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Valle, G.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

Wächter, H.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

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O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), ch. 11.

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Martekpower, “Weblet importer,” http://www.martekpower.com/products/en/hene-gas-laser-power-supply.html .

S. M. Goldwasser, “Sam’s laser FAQ components: HTML, photos, diagrams, and schematics,” http://www.photonlexicon.com/repairfaq/sam/laserfil.htm .

F. Träger, ed., Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Energy level diagram of the HeNe laser [10].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. HeNe laser tube with connection [10].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Five modes lasing [7].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Module under test, (b) module and adopter, (c) zoomed view, and (d), the disassembled HeNe laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Defective plasma tube under test. (b) Healthy reference HeNe plasma tube.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Typical appearance of bore discharge for red (633 nm) HeNe laser tubes versus condition [10].
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Examples of reflection and transmission of healthy HeNe mirrors [10]. (b) Mirror appearance in reflection (left) and transmission (right) of tubes that are the subject of this investigation. They are both similar. (Note that since the mirrors were not removed, the transmission is through both mirrors.)
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Some examples of AC and DC power supply connections for cathode-emitting HeNe laser.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Power supply connections for anode-emitting HeNe laser [14].
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Experimental measurements of HeNe Laser.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Design parameters of HeNe lasers (Rb=98  ).

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Typical Voltage and Current Requirements for Red HeNe Laser Tubesa

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Table 2. Specifications of Common DC and AC Input HeNe Laser Power Supplies

Equations (4)

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Vtube=0.0457P2+0.3355P+0.7758.
Vstarting=0.2041P2+2.014P+5.3912.
Itube=0.1173P2+1.1428P+2.9961.
L/D=0.2712P20.0348P+6.4731.

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