Abstract

This paper reports open-path in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Gandhinagar (23.2156°N, 72.6369°E) and Ahmedabad (23.0225°N, 72.5714°E) in the heavily industrialized state of Gujarat in western India. Calibration-free second harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) is used to carry out accurate and fully automated measurements. The mean values of the mole fraction of carbon dioxide at four locations were 438 ppm, 495 ppm, 550 ppm, and 740 ppm, respectively. These values are much higher than the current global average of 406.67 ppm. A 1 mW, 2004-nm vertical cavity surface-emitting laser is used to selectively interrogate the R16 transition of carbon dioxide at 2003.5 nm (4991.2585 cm−1). The 2f WMS signal corresponding to the gas absorption line shape is simulated using spectroscopic parameters available in the HITRAN database and relevant laser parameters that are extracted in situ from non-absorbing spectral wings of the harmonic signals. The mole fraction of carbon dioxide is extracted in real-time by a MATLAB program from least-squares fit of the simulated 2f WMS signal to the corresponding experimentally obtained signal. A 10-mW, 1392.54-nm distributed feedback laser is used at two of the locations to carry out water vapor measurements using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first instance of a portable tunable diode laser spectroscopy system being deployed in an urban location in India to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor under varying traffic conditions. The measurements clearly demonstrate the need to adopt tunable diode laser spectroscopy for precise long-term monitoring of greenhouse gases in the Indian subcontinent.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

A. Chhabra and A. Gohel, “Recent observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide over India,” Curr. Sci. 112, 2364–2366 (2017).

2016 (1)

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Saito, N. Manago, K. Kuriyama, and H. Kuze, “Near-infrared open-path measurement of CO2 concentration in the urban atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2568–2571 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Upadhyay and A. L. Chakraborty, “Calibration-free 2f WMS with in situ real-time laser characterization and 2f RAM nulling,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4086–4089 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, V. Valsala, and R. Murtugudde, “On understanding the land-ocean CO2 contrast over the Bay of Bengal: a case study during 2009 summer monsoon,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21, 5066–5075 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

2013 (6)

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lengden, R. Cunningham, and W. Johnstone, “Tunable diode laser based concentration measurements of water vapour and methane on a solid oxide fuel cell,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1354–1359 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

R. Latha and B. S. Murthy, “Natural reduction of CO2 observed in the pre-monsoon period at a coastal station, Goa,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 115, 73–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

2009 (1)

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Y. Y. Ponurovskii, and D. B. Stavrovskii, “Non-contact detection of explosives by means of a tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 361–364 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. G. Badami, “Transport and urban air pollution in India,” Environ. Manage. 36, 195–204 (2005).

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. H. Kwong and E. W. Johnston, “A variable step size LMS algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1633–1642 (1992).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-comparison of experiment with theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Abshire, J. B.

Akhand, A.

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ali, M. M.

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

Allan, G. R.

Allison, C. E.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Apparao, B. V.

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

Archer, P. D.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atreya, S. K.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Axner, O.

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Badami, M. G.

M. G. Badami, “Transport and urban air pollution in India,” Environ. Manage. 36, 195–204 (2005).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, S. K.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Bhattacharya, T.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Borole, D. V.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, P.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Bridges, J. C.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Browell, E. V.

Brownie, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canadell, J. G.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Chakraborty, A. L.

Chakraborty, S.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chanda, A.

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandra, N.

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chevallier, F.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Chhabra, A.

A. Chhabra and A. Gohel, “Recent observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide over India,” Curr. Sci. 112, 2364–2366 (2017).

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

ChrisBenner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Christensen, L. E.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ciais, P.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coll, P.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Conrad, P. G.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, R.

Dadhwal, V. K.

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
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A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Das, I.

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dlugokencky, E.

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Doney, S.

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dutta, S.

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eigenbrode, J. L.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fadnavis, S.

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
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Farley, K. A.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Freissinet, C.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gellert, R.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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Ghosh, A. K.

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

Glavin, D. P.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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A. Chhabra and A. Gohel, “Recent observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide over India,” Curr. Sci. 112, 2364–2366 (2017).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hanson, R. K.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
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Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Harrison, W. A.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Hartman, J.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hazra, S.

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Houghton, R. A.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Ito, A.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jeffries, J. B.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
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Johnston, E. W.

R. H. Kwong and E. W. Johnston, “A variable step size LMS algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1633–1642 (1992).
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Johnstone, W.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Kant, Y.

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
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Khan, A.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Kluczynski, P.

Krummel, P.

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Krummel, P. B.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Kumar, K. R.

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
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Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Kuriyama, K.

Kuze, H.

Kwong, R. H.

R. H. Kwong and E. W. Johnston, “A variable step size LMS algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1633–1642 (1992).
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J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-comparison of experiment with theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
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N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
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Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Langenfelds, R.

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Langenfelds, R. L.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Lary, D. J.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Lasco, R.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

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R. Latha and B. S. Murthy, “Natural reduction of CO2 observed in the pre-monsoon period at a coastal station, Goa,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 115, 73–80 (2012).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Owen, T.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, D.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Patra, P. K.

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Pavlov, A. A.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Piao, S. L.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ponurovskii, Y. Y.

A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Y. Y. Ponurovskii, and D. B. Stavrovskii, “Non-contact detection of explosives by means of a tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 361–364 (2008).
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Pozzoli, L.

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
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Ramonet, M.

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Rao, P. V. N.

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

Ravi Kumar, K.

K. Ravi Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, V. Valsala, and R. Murtugudde, “On understanding the land-ocean CO2 contrast over the Bay of Bengal: a case study during 2009 summer monsoon,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21, 5066–5075 (2014).
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Raymond, P. A.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

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J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-comparison of experiment with theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
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Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riris, H.

Roscoe, B.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saito, H.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Schaefer, D.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Schultz, I. A.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwenzer, S. P.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A.

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
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Sharma, N.

N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

Sheel, V.

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spearrin, R. M.

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stavrovskii, D. B.

A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Y. Y. Ponurovskii, and D. B. Stavrovskii, “Non-contact detection of explosives by means of a tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 361–364 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steele, A.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steele, L. P.

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Sun, K.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sutter, B.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. L.

Tao, L.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, Y. K.

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, V. Valsala, and R. Murtugudde, “On understanding the land-ocean CO2 contrast over the Bay of Bengal: a case study during 2009 summer monsoon,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21, 5066–5075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Upadhyay, A.

Valsala, V.

K. Ravi Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, V. Valsala, and R. Murtugudde, “On understanding the land-ocean CO2 contrast over the Bay of Bengal: a case study during 2009 summer monsoon,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21, 5066–5075 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

Venkataramani, S.

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Weaver, C. J.

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zondlo, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Zorzano, M.-P.

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

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N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, Y. Kant, P. Mahesh, K. Mallikarjun, H. Gadavi, A. Sharma, and M. M. Ali, “Atmospheric CO2 variations in two contrasting environmental sites over India,” Air Soil Water Res. 7, 61–68 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

S. Fadnavis, K. R. Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, and L. Pozzoli, “Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region,” Ann. Geophys. 34, 279–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. M. Spearrin, C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 689–698 (2014).
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J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-comparison of experiment with theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
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P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, D. Pan, L. M. Golston, and M. A. Zondlo, “Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 153–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. I. Nadezhdinskii, Y. Y. Ponurovskii, and D. B. Stavrovskii, “Non-contact detection of explosives by means of a tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 361–364 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

N. Chandra, S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, P. K. Patra, and V. Sheel, “Temporal variations in CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 15, 32185–32238 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences (2)

V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala, “Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Indian Ocean between 1990 and 2009,” Biogeosciences 10, 7035–7052 (2013).

P. K. Patra, J. G. Canadell, R. A. Houghton, S. L. Piao, N. H. Oh, P. Ciais, K. R. Manjunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, and R. Lasco, “The carbon budget of South Asia,” Biogeosciences 10, 513–527 (2013).

Curr. Sci. (3)

S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, R. J. Francey, C. E. Allison, L. P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K. A. Masarie, Y. K. Tiwari, and P. K. Patra, “Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India,” Curr. Sci. 97, 1336–1344 (2009).

Y. K. Tiwari, P. K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R. J. Francey, P. B. Krummel, C. E. Allison, J. V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R. L. Langenfelds, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. V. Borole, K. R. Kumar, and L. P. Steele, “Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1562–1568 (2011).

A. Chhabra and A. Gohel, “Recent observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide over India,” Curr. Sci. 112, 2364–2366 (2017).

Environ. Manage. (1)

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Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (1)

K. Ravi Kumar, Y. K. Tiwari, V. Valsala, and R. Murtugudde, “On understanding the land-ocean CO2 contrast over the Bay of Bengal: a case study during 2009 summer monsoon,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21, 5066–5075 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

R. H. Kwong and E. W. Johnston, “A variable step size LMS algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1633–1642 (1992).
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J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change (1)

P. Mahesh, N. Sharma, V. K. Dadhwal, P. V. N. Rao, B. V. Apparao, A. K. Ghosh, K. Mallikarjun, and M. M. Ali, “Impact of land-sea breeze and rainfall on CO2 variations at a coastal station,” J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change 5, 201–206 (2014).

J. Earth Syst. Sci. (1)

A. Chanda, A. Akhand, S. Manna, S. Dutta, S. Hazra, I. Das, and V. K. Dadhwal, “Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India,” J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, 503–513 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brownie, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (1)

R. Latha and B. S. Murthy, “Natural reduction of CO2 observed in the pre-monsoon period at a coastal station, Goa,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 115, 73–80 (2012).
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Remote Sens. (1)

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low power greenhouse gas sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4, 1355–1368 (2012).

Science (1)

C. R. Webster, P. R. Mahaffy, S. K. Atreya, G. J. Flesch, M. A. Mischna, P.-Y. Meslin, K. A. Farley, P. G. Conrad, L. E. Christensen, A. A. Pavlov, J. Martín-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, T. H. McConnochie, T. Owen, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. P. Glavin, A. Steele, C. A. Malespin, P. D. Archer, B. Sutter, P. Coll, C. Freissinet, C. P. McKay, J. E. Moores, S. P. Schwenzer, J. C. Bridges, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, R. Gellert, M. T. Lemmon, and the MSL Science Team, “Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater,” Science 347, 415–417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

“WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin-No. 12: the State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2015,” (2016), https://library.wmo.int/opac/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3084 .

Real time air quality data, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Government of India, http://www.cpcb.gov.in/CAAQM/mapPage/frmindiamap.aspx .

Mauna Loa Observatory, Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/mlo/ .

Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html .

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated absorption spectra of 400 ppm carbon dioxide, 1% water vapor, and 5 ppb ammonia for the tunable range of the 2004-nm VCSEL. Interference from ammonia is negligible. R16 transition of carbon dioxide is selected for the measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated absorption spectra of 400 ppm carbon dioxide and 1% water vapor for the tunable range of the 1392.54-nm DFB laser. Selected line at 1391.672 nm is marked with a red box.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of tuning coefficient, δν/δi (GHz/mA), of the 2004-nm VCSEL as a function of modulation frequency (kHz) for various modulation amplitude values.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Block diagram of the TDLS set-up, (b) portable set-up used for field measurements, (c) close-up of the 2004-nm VCSEL, 1392.54-nm DFB laser and two detectors, and (d) Delfino Experimenter’s kit used for waveform generation and processing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Block diagram of the direct detection algorithm implemented on the DSP board.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental and simulated 2f X component signals for (a) 1%, (b) 460 ppm, (c) 350 ppm, and (d) 285 ppm carbon dioxide in nitrogen obtained with a single-pass gas cell with a path length of 28 cm under laboratory conditions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Plot of Allan deviation as a function of integration time, showing a detection limit of 68 ppm carbon dioxide for an averaging time of 44 s.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Map of India showing the location of Gujarat; (b) zoomed-in view of Gujarat showing location of the Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar region (marked as R); and (c) zoomed-in view of the Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar region showing measurement locations—(1) Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar (IITGN) campus, (2) Infocity, Gandhinagar, (3) Chandkheda, Ahmedabad, and (4) Ramnagar, Ahmedabad (image taken from Google Maps).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Variation in carbon dioxide mole fraction at IITGN campus on (a) 19 June 2016 and (b) 28 July 2016 and 3 August 2016.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation in carbon dioxide mole fraction at IITGN campus on 6, 7, and 9 November 2016 from 10:00 h to 20:00 h along with the temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental and simulated 2f magnitude signals for the carbon dioxide measurements taken at IITGN campus on (a) 6 November 2016 at 11:00 h and (b) 6 November 2016 at 17:15 h.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Daily mean mole fraction of carbon dioxide for observations made on eight days during winter at IITGN. Red dots represent the mean value and blue bars denote the standard deviation (1σ) of the observations for each day.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Variation in carbon dioxide and water vapor at IITGN campus on 22 and 23 February 2017 from 11:40 h to 18:40 h, along with the relative humidity values recorded with the digital anemometer.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Experimental and simulated direct detection signals for the water vapor measurements taken at IITGN campus on (a) 22 February 2017 at 13:00 h and (b) 22 February 2017 at 15:20 h.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Variation in carbon dioxide and water vapor at IITGN campus on 28 and 29 May 2017 from 12:30 h to 18:00 h, along with the relative humidity values recorded with the digital anemometer.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Variation in mole fraction of carbon dioxide at Infocity, Gandhinagar on 23, 27, and 30 November 2016 from 16:00 h to 20:00 h, along with the temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Experimental and simulated 2f magnitude signals for the carbon dioxide measurements taken at Infocity, Gandhinagar on (a) 23 November 2016 at 19:00 h, (b) 27 November 2016 at 20:00 h, (c) 30 November 2016 at 17:45 h, and (d) 30 November 2016 at 19:30 h.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Variation in mole fraction of carbon dioxide at Chandkheda, Ahmedabad on 22, 25, and 29 November 2016 from 16:00 h to 20:00 h along with the temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Experimental and simulated 2f magnitude signals for carbon dioxide measurements taken at Chandkheda, Ahmedabad on (a) 22 November 2016 at 18:45 h and (b) 25 November 2016 at 19:45 h.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Variation in carbon dioxide and water vapor at Ramnagar, Ahmedabad on 30 May 2017 from 18:00 h to 20:00 h, along with the temperature and relative humidity values.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Daily mean mole fraction of carbon dioxide for the observations made at the four locations, namely, IITGN campus, Infocity, Gandhinagar, Chandkheda, Ahmedabad, and Ramnagar, Ahmedabad. Extremely large value at Ramnagar is ascribed to the high levels of traffic congestion in that area.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Map of India showing the 11 regional stations under the GAW program of the WMO. Stations are monitored by the India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences. (Source: http://www.imd.gov.in/pages/obs_network.php?id=10.)

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

It(ν)Io(ν)=exp(α(ν))=exp(jSj(T)Pxϕj(ν)L),
S(T)=S(T0)Q(T0)Q(T)(T0T)exp[hcEk(1T1T0)]×[1exp(hcν0kT)][1exp(hcν0kT0)]1,
ν(t)=ν¯+Δνcosωmt,
I(t)=I(ν¯)+ΔI1cos(ωmt+ψ1)+ΔI2cos(2ωmt+ψ2),
α(ν¯+Δνcosωmt)=n=0Hn(ν¯,Δν)cos(nωmt),
X1f=I(ν¯)H1+ΔI1(H0+0.5H2)cos(ψ1)+0.5ΔI2(H1+H3)cos(ψ2),
Y1f=ΔI1(H00.5H2)sin(ψ1)+0.5ΔI2(H1H3)sin(ψ2),
X2f=I(ν¯)H2+0.5ΔI1(H1+H3)cos(ψ1)+ΔI2(H0+0.5H4)cos(ψ2),
Y2f=0.5ΔI1(H1H3)sin(ψ1)+ΔI2(H00.5H4)sin(ψ2).

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