Abstract

The potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) optical beam deflector is an electro-optic deflector without any moving parts that works at frequencies higher than 200 kHz. In this paper, we discuss the performance parameters of this deflector. Optical beams are bent by the spatial distribution of the refractive index in the KTN crystal block used in this deflector. In addition to the deflection function, the index distribution operates as a cylindrical convex lens. Therefore, the deflector is often used with glass cylindrical lenses to cancel out the lens function. We analyzed optical rays curving in the block based on the graded index lens theory. We describe the way in which performance parameters, such as the deflection angle, change, depending on both the choice of the compensating lenses and the parameters of the KTN block, namely its size and charge density. We concentrate especially on methods designed to improve the resolvable spot number, which is the most important figure of merit for optical deflectors. One way to achieve improvement is to input a collimated beam or a slightly converging beam into the KTN block.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Measurement of charge density distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 976–981 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1985 (1)

1966 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

A. Reisman, S. Triebwasser, and F. Holzberg, “Phase diagram of the system KNbO3-KTaO3 by the methods of differential thermal and resistance analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4228–4230 (1955).
[Crossref]

Barad, Y.

Bhushan, B.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

Enbutsu, K.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, M.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujiura, K.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fushimi, H.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gahagan, K. T.

Geusic, J. E.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Gopalan, V.

Haruna, M.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Holzberg, F.

A. Reisman, S. Triebwasser, and F. Holzberg, “Phase diagram of the system KNbO3-KTaO3 by the methods of differential thermal and resistance analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4228–4230 (1955).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Imai, T.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Measurement of charge density distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 976–981 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jia, Q.

Kato, K.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, J.

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Measurement of charge density distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 976–981 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kohda, H.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kojima, S.

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kurihara, T.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S. K.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Manabe, K.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, T.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, T. E.

Miyazu, J.

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Measurement of charge density distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 976–981 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Naganuma, K.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohmi, M.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okabe, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reisman, A.

A. Reisman, S. Triebwasser, and F. Holzberg, “Phase diagram of the system KNbO3-KTaO3 by the methods of differential thermal and resistance analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4228–4230 (1955).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. M.

Sakamoto, T.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sasaura, M.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scrymgeour, D. A.

Shibata, Y.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shimokozono, M.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Skinner, J. G.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

Sugai, E.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Tate, A.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tatsumi, S.

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Tohno, S.

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. Sasaki, J. Miyazu, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, and J. Kobayashi, “Trapped charge density analysis of KTN crystal by beam path measurement,” Opt. Express 22, 7783–7789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Triebwasser, S.

A. Reisman, S. Triebwasser, and F. Holzberg, “Phase diagram of the system KNbO3-KTaO3 by the methods of differential thermal and resistance analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4228–4230 (1955).
[Crossref]

Ueno, M.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Uitert, L. G.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wemple, S. H.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wyant, J. C.

Yagi, S.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, J.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University, 1997).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Changes in permittivity of KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals induced by electron injection in relation to nonlinear dielectric response,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 071501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “350  kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1-xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50, 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Reisman, S. Triebwasser, and F. Holzberg, “Phase diagram of the system KNbO3-KTaO3 by the methods of differential thermal and resistance analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4228–4230 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. Sasaura, T. Imai, H. Kohda, S. Tohno, M. Shimokozono, H. Fushimi, K. Fujiura, S. Toyoda, K. Enbutsu, A. Tate, K. Manabe, T. Matsuura, and T. Kurihara, “TSSG pulling and LPE growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 for optical waveguides,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2099–e2103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE 8213, 821333 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, T. Imai, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Stable wavelength-swept light source designed for industrial applications using KTN beam-scanning technology,” Proc. SPIE 10110, 101100Q (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University, 1997).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of the KTN SCC optical beam deflector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Diagram of an optical ray that diverges at point P on the optical axis of a KTN block, enters the block, bends there, and exits the block.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Example spatial distribution of Δ n in the KTN crystal block.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Change of the width of the beam’s output from a KTN block with the distance from the end face of the block. The parameter was the charge density ρ .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. d c o and d p as functions of charge density. The solid lines are theoretical fittings.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Shift of graded index lens and light ray deflection.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Conversion of input collimated beams to diverging beams (a) with concave lens and (b) with convex lens.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Changes in deflection angle and pivot when a compensating concave lens is installed.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Changes in deflection angle and pivot when a compensating convex lens is installed.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Lens shift σ as a function of the incident angle of an input ray ϕ 1 , which indicates limitations in regards to these parameters for avoiding ray collision. The curves are drawn for different charge densities. The area below each curve is the permitted region.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Maximum resolvable spot number of a KTN optical beam deflector as a function of Δ ϕ i with a symmetrical configuration.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Maximum resolvable spot number of a KTN optical beam deflector as a function of Δ ϕ i with a fixed beam width at the input face of the KTN block. The beam width a i is 0.8 mm.

Equations (55)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) = n 0 ( 1 A 2 r 2 ) = n 0 1 2 n 0 A r 2 .
[ r 2 r ˙ 2 ] = [ cos ( L A ) 1 n 0 A sin ( L A ) n 0 A sin ( L A ) cos ( L A ) ] [ r 1 r ˙ 1 ] .
r ˙ 1 = tan ϕ 1 ϕ 1 , r ˙ 2 = tan ϕ 2 ϕ 2 .
r 1 = d c i tan ϕ 1 d c i ϕ 1 , r 2 = d c o tan ϕ 1 d c o ϕ 1 .
( d c o d c + f G ) ( d c i d c + f G ) = f G 2 ,
ϕ 2 ϕ 1 = 1 f G ( d c i + f G d c ) ,
f G 1 n 0 A sin ( L A ) ,
d c 1 n 0 A cot ( L A 2 ) .
1 d c o + d p + 1 d c i + d p = 1 f G ,
d p 2 f G d c .
h Q = d c o + f G d c f G h P = f G d c i + f G d c h P .
h Q h P = d c o + f G d c f G = f G d c i + f G d c .
n = n 0 1 2 n 0 3 g eff ρ 2 ( x σ ) 2 .
σ ( V ) = ϵ V ρ d ,
A = n 0 g eff | ρ | r = x σ .
x Q = d c i + d p d c i + f G d c σ = d c o + d p f G σ .
θ tan θ = x Q d p + d c o = σ f G .
θ = n 0 A σ sin ( L A ) .
θ σ n 0 A L = n 0 3 g eff ρ L ϵ V d ,
x Qfull = 2 d c o + d p f G σ ( V p p 2 ) ,
w c = 4 λ π Δ ϕ o ,
N c = π Δ ϕ o 2 λ d c o + d p f G σ ( V p p 2 ) .
N c = π Δ ϕ i 2 λ d c i + d p f G σ ( V p p 2 ) .
ϕ 1 x 0 i f c i .
ϕ 2 x 0 o f c o .
x 0 o f c o = d c i + f G d c f G x 0 i f c i , x 0 i f c i = d c o + f G d c f G x 0 o f c o .
x Q = f c o θ c .
θ c = 1 f c o d c i + d p d c i + f G d c σ = d p + d c o f c o σ f G .
θ c = 2 f c o σ .
c = f c o ( 1 f c o d c o + d p ) .
Δ θ = 4 λ π w o 0 ,
θ c w = 2 d p + d c o f c o 1 f G σ ( V p p 2 ) .
N c = θ c w Δ θ = π w o 0 2 λ d p + d c o f c o 1 f G σ ( V p p 2 ) .
N c = π w i 0 2 λ d p + d c i f c i 1 f G σ ( V p p 2 ) ,
w i 0 f c i = Δ ϕ i , w o 0 f c o = Δ ϕ o .
c = h x Q f c o = f c o ( 1 + f c o d c o + d p ) .
x ˙ 1 = ϕ 1 , x 1 = d c i ϕ 1
x = cos ( z A ) d c i ϕ 1 + 1 n 0 A sin ( z A ) ϕ 1 { cos ( z A ) 1 } σ .
z = L , x = x L ( d c i + d p f G d c d c i ) ϕ 1 + d p f G σ .
z = z p 1 A arctan ( 1 n 0 A ϕ 1 d c i ϕ 1 σ ) , x = x p ( d c i ϕ 1 σ ) 2 + d p d c ϕ 1 2 + σ .
( z p < L ) d 2 > ( d c i ϕ 1 σ ) 2 + d p d c ϕ 1 2 + σ ( z p > L ) d 2 > ( d c i + d p f G d c d c i ) ϕ 1 + d p f G σ ,
ϕ 1 b d 2 ( d p + d c i ) , σ b d 2 ( 1 f G d p + d c i ) = d 2 f G ϕ 1 b ,
( σ < σ b ) ϕ 1 < d 2 ( d 2 2 σ ) ( d c i 2 + d p d c ) + d c i 2 σ 2 + d c i σ d c i 2 + d p d c ,
( σ > σ b ) ϕ 1 < 1 2 f G d 2 d p σ d p d c + ( d c f G ) d c i .
( ϕ 1 > ϕ 1 b ) 2 σ < d 2 4 ( d c i 2 + d p d c ) ϕ 1 2 d 2 d c i ϕ 1 ,
( ϕ 1 < ϕ 1 b ) 2 σ < f G d 2 ϕ 1 { d p d c + ( d c f G ) d c i } d p .
( Δ ϕ i > 2 ϕ 1 b ) N c lim = π 8 λ d c i + d p f G Δ ϕ i d 2 ( d c i 2 + d p d c ) Δ ϕ i 2 d d c i Δ ϕ i ,
( Δ ϕ i < 2 ϕ 1 b ) N c lim = π 4 λ d c i + d p f G Δ ϕ i × f G d Δ ϕ i { d p d c + ( d c f G ) d c i } d p .
a i = d c i Δ ϕ i .
( Δ ϕ < i d a i d p ) N c lim = π λ ( a i + d p Δ ϕ i ) ( d 2 a i 2 d p d c Δ ϕ i 2 ) 8 f G ( d a i ) ,
( Δ ϕ > i d a i d p ) N c lim = π 4 λ 1 d p ( a i + d p Δ ϕ i ) × { d + a i d c f G ( a i + d p Δ ϕ i ) }
( d c i < a i d p d a i ) N c lim = π 8 λ a i 3 f G ( d a i ) ( 1 + d p d c i ) ( d 2 a i 2 a i 2 d p d c d c i 2 ) ,
( d c i > a i d p d a i ) N c lim = π 4 λ a i 2 d p ( 1 + d p d c i ) { 1 + d a i d c f G ( 1 + d p d c i ) } .
Δ ϕ i = f G d ( 2 d c f G ) a i 2 d c d p = n 0 A 2 sin ( L A ) [ d { 1 + 2 cos ( L A ) } a i ] ,
π 16 λ f G d c d p ( d + a i ) 2 = π 16 λ n 0 A sin ( L A ) ( d + a i ) 2 .

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