Abstract

Time-lapse videos, still photos, visual observations, and theoretical studies were used to investigate the antitwilight, i.e., twilight opposite the Sun. Colors, brightnesses, and antitwilight features as a function of solar altitude were measured. Four roughly horizontal bands were identified and explained physically in terms of atmospheric geometry, the observer’s line-of-sight, optical depth, refraction, and multiple scattering. Particular emphasis is placed on (1) the origin of the dark segment, (2) the rapid rising of the Belt of Venus with solar altitude, and (3) ray tracing light through the low atmosphere to understand refractive effects. New names are suggested for three of the four bands, and the new terminology is reconciled with earlier papers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Time lapse video of antisolar twilight development. Field of view of each frame is 118° × 69°. The view is westward over the Pacific Ocean and it was cold and clear at sunrise. Refracted solar altitude ε is shown in each.
» Visualization 2       Reconstructed video images of the antitwilight based on the colors of the vertical profiles from the video (Figure 2). Refracted solar altitude ε is shown in the upper right hand corner of each image.

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