Abstract

Liquid nitrogen (LN2) behavior on the surface of excited Yb3+:YAG is investigated using fluorometry. From the time-resolved temperature variations and integrated fluorescence spectra intensity on this directly cooled Yb3+:YAG surface, we observe a phase transition of LN2 from nucleate boiling to film boiling. As a result of this pool boiling, good beam quality should occur when the temperature and heat flux at an excited surface of Yb3+:YAG are below 95 K and 15.8W/cm2, respectively. That is, the LN2 should remain in a steady state of nucleate boiling to produce good beam quality using pool boiling.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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