Abstract

In time-resolved spectroscopy, it is a widespread belief that the temporal resolution is determined by the laser pulse duration. Recently, it was observed and shown that partially coherent laser pulses as they are provided by free-electron-laser (FEL) sources offer an alternative route to reach a temporal resolution below the average pulse duration. Here, we demonstrate the generation of partially coherent light in the laboratory like we observe it at FELs. We present the successful implementation of such statistically fluctuating pulses by using the pulse-shaping technique. These pulses exhibit an average pulse duration about 10 times larger than their bandwidth limit. The shaped pulses are then applied to transient-absorption measurements in the dye IR144. Despite the noisy characteristics of the laser pulses, features in the measured absorption spectra occurring on time scales much faster than the average pulse duration are resolved, thus proving the universality of the described noisy-pulse concept.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Meyer, C. Ott, P. Raith, A. Kaldun, Y. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and T. Pfeifer, “Noisy optical pulses enhance the temporal resolution of pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 098302 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. O. Kinrot, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Measuring coherence while observing noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3822–3825 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. G. Xu, S. O. Konorov, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Noise autocorrelation spectroscopy with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Phys. 4, 125–129 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Asaka, H. Nakatsuka, M. Fujiwara, and M. Matsuoka, “Accumulated photon-echoes with incoherent-light in Nd-3+-doped silicate glass,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 2286–2289 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Morita and T. Yajima, “Ultrahigh-time-resolution coherent transient spectroscopy with incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2525–2536 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Tomita and M. Matsuoka, “Ultrafast pump probe measurement using intensity correlation of incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 560–563 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, “Coherent stokes Raman-scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 715–724 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Y. Huang, Z. P. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Time-delayed 2nd-harmonic generation with nanosecond broad-band light-pulses-studies of femtosecond dephasing process of a monolayer of adsorbates,” Opt. Commun. 67, 152–158 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. Dugan and A. C. Albrecht, “Radiation-matter oscillations and spectral-line narrowing in field-correlated 4-wave-mixing. II. Experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3922–3933 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Lau, M. Pfeiffer, and W. Werncke, “New time-resolved CARS arrangements,” Il Nuovo Cimento D 14, 1023–1032 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Pfeifer, Y. H. Jiang, S. Düsterer, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Partial-coherence method to model experimental free-electron laser pulse statistics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3441–3443 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Meyer, C. Ott, P. Raith, A. Kaldun, Y. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and T. Pfeifer, “Noisy optical pulses enhance the temporal resolution of pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 098302 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

T. Pfeifer, Y. H. Jiang, S. Düsterer, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Partial-coherence method to model experimental free-electron laser pulse statistics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3441–3443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. G. Xu, S. O. Konorov, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Noise autocorrelation spectroscopy with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Phys. 4, 125–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

O. Kinrot, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Measuring coherence while observing noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3822–3825 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Lau, M. Pfeiffer, and W. Werncke, “New time-resolved CARS arrangements,” Il Nuovo Cimento D 14, 1023–1032 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. A. Dugan and A. C. Albrecht, “Radiation-matter oscillations and spectral-line narrowing in field-correlated 4-wave-mixing. II. Experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3922–3933 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. Y. Huang, Z. P. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Time-delayed 2nd-harmonic generation with nanosecond broad-band light-pulses-studies of femtosecond dephasing process of a monolayer of adsorbates,” Opt. Commun. 67, 152–158 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, “Coherent stokes Raman-scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 715–724 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1984 (3)

S. Asaka, H. Nakatsuka, M. Fujiwara, and M. Matsuoka, “Accumulated photon-echoes with incoherent-light in Nd-3+-doped silicate glass,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 2286–2289 (1984).
[Crossref]

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “Ultrahigh-time-resolution coherent transient spectroscopy with incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2525–2536 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
[Crossref]

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, A. C.

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. A. Dugan and A. C. Albrecht, “Radiation-matter oscillations and spectral-line narrowing in field-correlated 4-wave-mixing. II. Experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3922–3933 (1991).
[Crossref]

Asaka, S.

S. Asaka, H. Nakatsuka, M. Fujiwara, and M. Matsuoka, “Accumulated photon-echoes with incoherent-light in Nd-3+-doped silicate glass,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 2286–2289 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Averbukh, I. S.

O. Kinrot, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Measuring coherence while observing noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3822–3825 (1995).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beck, W. F.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belkacem, A.

R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Brueggemann, B.

B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carson, E. A.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. P.

J. Y. Huang, Z. P. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Time-delayed 2nd-harmonic generation with nanosecond broad-band light-pulses-studies of femtosecond dephasing process of a monolayer of adsorbates,” Opt. Commun. 67, 152–158 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dietzek, B.

B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diffey, W. M.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dillman, K. L.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Dugan, M. A.

M. A. Dugan and A. C. Albrecht, “Radiation-matter oscillations and spectral-line narrowing in field-correlated 4-wave-mixing. II. Experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3922–3933 (1991).
[Crossref]

Düsterer, S.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeifer, Y. H. Jiang, S. Düsterer, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Partial-coherence method to model experimental free-electron laser pulse statistics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3441–3443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foucar, L.

R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Friesem, A. A.

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. Asaka, H. Nakatsuka, M. Fujiwara, and M. Matsuoka, “Accumulated photon-echoes with incoherent-light in Nd-3+-doped silicate glass,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 2286–2289 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fukuzawa, H.

Fung, R.

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grguras, I.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hanna, A. M.

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Ishikawa, T.

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Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
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R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
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R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
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A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schleicher, J. S.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schröter, C. D.

R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Schulz, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Seideman, T.

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Senftleben, A.

K. Meyer, C. Ott, P. Raith, A. Kaldun, Y. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and T. Pfeifer, “Noisy optical pulses enhance the temporal resolution of pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 098302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shelly, K. R.

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stimson, M. J.

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sugishima, A.

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

Terasaki, A.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, “Coherent stokes Raman-scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 715–724 (1987).
[Crossref]

Togashi, T.

Tomita, M.

M. Tomita and M. Matsuoka, “Ultrafast pump probe measurement using intensity correlation of incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 560–563 (1986).
[Crossref]

H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
[Crossref]

Toppin, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Treusch, R.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, J.

K. Meyer, C. Ott, P. Raith, A. Kaldun, Y. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and T. Pfeifer, “Noisy optical pulses enhance the temporal resolution of pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 098302 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, T. Pfeifer, A. Rudenko, Y. H. Jiang, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, O. Herrwerth, M. F. Kling, X. J. Liu, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Ueda, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Nagaya, H. Iwayama, A. Sugishima, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Yase, M. Yao, N. Saito, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, and T. Togashi, “Second-order autocorrelation of XUV FEL pulses via time resolved two-photon single ionization of He,” Opt. Express 19, 21698–21706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeifer, Y. H. Jiang, S. Düsterer, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Partial-coherence method to model experimental free-electron laser pulse statistics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3441–3443 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulness, D. J.

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
[Crossref]

van Tilborg, J.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Vendrell, O.

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Werncke, W.

A. Lau, M. Pfeiffer, and W. Werncke, “New time-resolved CARS arrangements,” Il Nuovo Cimento D 14, 1023–1032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Winter, M.

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wollenhaupt, M.

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. G.

X. G. Xu, S. O. Konorov, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Noise autocorrelation spectroscopy with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Phys. 4, 125–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yabashi, M.

Yajima, T.

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “Ultrahigh-time-resolution coherent transient spectroscopy with incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2525–2536 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, A.

Yao, M.

Yartsev, A.

B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yase, S.

Zouros, T. J. M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Frequency and time resolved coherent stokes Raman scattering in CS2 using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 185–190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Il Nuovo Cimento D (1)

A. Lau, M. Pfeiffer, and W. Werncke, “New time-resolved CARS arrangements,” Il Nuovo Cimento D 14, 1023–1032 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

B. Dietzek, B. Brueggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13014–13021 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

E. A. Carson, W. M. Diffey, K. R. Shelly, S. Lampa-Pastirk, K. L. Dillman, J. S. Schleicher, and W. F. Beck, “Dynamic-absorption spectral contours: vibrational phase-dependent resolution of low-frequency coherent wave-packet motion of IR144 on the ground-state and excited-state surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1489–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. J. Stimson, D. J. Ulness, and A. C. Albrecht, “Time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy controlled by spectrally tailored noisy light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 579–587 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

X. G. Xu, S. O. Konorov, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Noise autocorrelation spectroscopy with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Phys. 4, 125–129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Fung, A. M. Hanna, O. Vendrell, S. Ramakrishna, T. Seideman, R. Santra, and A. Ourmazd, “Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty,” Nature 532, 471–475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Y. Huang, Z. P. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Time-delayed 2nd-harmonic generation with nanosecond broad-band light-pulses-studies of femtosecond dephasing process of a monolayer of adsorbates,” Opt. Commun. 67, 152–158 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. Nakatsuka, M. Tomita, M. Fujiwara, and S. Asaka, “Subpicosecond photon-echoes by using nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 52, 150–152 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, “Coherent stokes Raman-scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 715–724 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. A. Dugan and A. C. Albrecht, “Radiation-matter oscillations and spectral-line narrowing in field-correlated 4-wave-mixing. II. Experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3922–3933 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Asaka, H. Nakatsuka, M. Fujiwara, and M. Matsuoka, “Accumulated photon-echoes with incoherent-light in Nd-3+-doped silicate glass,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 2286–2289 (1984).
[Crossref]

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “Ultrahigh-time-resolution coherent transient spectroscopy with incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2525–2536 (1984).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, J. F. Perez-Torres, O. Herrwerth, L. Foucar, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, M. Toppin, E. Plésiat, F. Morales, F. Martín, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, J. van Tilborg, A. Belkacem, M. Schulz, K. Ueda, T. J. M. Zouros, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 051402(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Meyer, C. Ott, P. Raith, A. Kaldun, Y. Jiang, A. Senftleben, M. Kurka, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and T. Pfeifer, “Noisy optical pulses enhance the temporal resolution of pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 098302 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Kinrot, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Measuring coherence while observing noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3822–3825 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Präkelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, “Compact, robust, and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950–4953 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the experimental setup. (a) Pulse shaper in 4f-configuration. A linear arrangement of the optical components is chosen in order to avoid aberrations. The spatial light modulator creates partially coherent phase patterns that are imprinted onto the laser spectrum, leading to statistically fluctuating pulse shapes. (b) Experimental setup for the transient-absorption and autocorrelation measurements, respectively. The laser pulses are split up into pump and probe pulses by a spatial mask and a time delay is introduced by a split mirror. In the case of the autocorrelation measurements, the pump and probe pulses are focused into a BBO crystal and the second-harmonic light generated by both pulses is detected as a function of the time delay. In the transient-absorption experiments, the BBO is replaced by the sample and the spectrum of the probe pulse is measured as a function of the pump–probe time delay.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Autocorrelation measurements. Measured second-harmonic spectra (a), and their projection (b), as a function of the time delay between pump and probe pulse for the case of transform-limited pulses. The red curve corresponds to a Gaussian fit yielding a pulse duration of about 34 fs (FWHM). (c) and (d) Second-harmonic spectra and their projection for partially coherent (noisy) pulses, generated with the pulse shaper, averaged over 15 scans. The Gaussian fits (red curves) reveal an average pulse duration of roughly 260 fs (FWHM) and a bandwidth limit of about 33 fs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transient-absorption spectra for partially coherent pump and probe pulses as a function of the pump–probe time delay for different pump-pulse fluences: (a)  1.41    mJ / cm 2 ; (b)  2.83    mJ / cm 2 ; (c)  4.24    mJ / cm 2 ; (d)  5.66    mJ / cm 2 ; (e)  7.07    mJ / cm 2 ; (f)  8.49    mJ / cm 2 ; (g)  11.32    mJ / cm 2 . Each two-dimensional absorption spectrum corresponds to an average over five time-delay scans. (h) Representative time-dependent absorption spectra obtained for coherent, transform-limited pump and probe pulses. Here, the pump-pulse fluence was set to 4.24    mJ / cm 2 .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Integrated transient-absorption spectra as a function of the pump–probe time delay for partially coherent pump and probe pulses. The following pump-pulse fluences were chosen: (a)  1.41    mJ / cm 2 ; (b)  2.83    mJ / cm 2 ; (c)  4.24    mJ / cm 2 ; (d)  5.66    mJ / cm 2 ; (e)  7.07    mJ / cm 2 ; (f)  8.49    mJ / cm 2 ; (g)  11.32    mJ / cm 2 . (h) Integrated signal for the case of coherent, transform-limited pump and probe pulses. The pump-pulse fluence was set to 4.24    mJ / cm 2 . The red curves represent the corresponding fits given by Eqs. (3) and (4).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fit parameters. (a) Time constant t d of the exponential decay obtained from the fit as a function of the pump-pulse fluence. For the partially coherent pulses, t d increases drastically with increasing fluence. In comparison, the derived decay times for coherent, transform-limited pump and probe pulses are depicted (blue dots) for pump-pulse fluences of 4.24    mJ / cm 2 , 7.07    mJ / cm 2 , and 8.49    mJ / cm 2 . (b) Width (FWHM) of the dip at zero time delay.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( t ) = a + b + Θ ( t ) { [ a + b exp ( t t d ) ] ( a + b ) } .
g ( t ) = d · exp ( t 2 w 2 ) .
F ( t ) = A + B [ 1 erf ( t t 0 w ) + exp ( w 2 4 t d 2 ) exp ( t t 0 t d ) exp ( w 2 4 t d 2 ) exp ( t t 0 t d ) erf ( t t 0 w + w 2 t d ) ] ,
F final ( t ) = F ( t ) + D exp ( ( t t c ) 2 2 σ 2 ) .

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