Abstract

Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) achieving high timing resolution (2050  ps) developed for time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) generally have very small photosensitive areas (25–100 μm in diameter). This limits the achievable photon counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio and may lead to long counting times. This is detrimental in applications requiring several measurements, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy, which requires scanning, and time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT). We show in this work that the use of an immersion lens directly affixed onto the photosensitive area of the SPAD helps alleviate this problem by allowing more light to be concentrated onto the detector. Following careful optical design and simulations, our experimental results show that it is actually possible to achieve the predicted theoretical increase in the photon counting rate (we achieve a factor of 4 here). This work is of high relevance in high timing resolution TCSPC with small photosensitive area detectors and should find widespread interest in FLIM and TD-DOT with SPADs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements

Alberto Tosi, Alberto Dalla Mora, Franco Zappa, Angelo Gulinatti, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli, and Rinaldo Cubeddu
Opt. Express 19(11) 10735-10746 (2011)

Dynamic range extension for photon counting arrays

Ivan Michel Antolovic, Claudio Bruschini, and Edoardo Charbon
Opt. Express 26(17) 22234-22248 (2018)

Time-domain reflectance diffuse optical tomography with Mellin-Laplace transform for experimental detection and depth localization of a single absorbing inclusion

Agathe Puszka, Lionel Hervé, Anne Planat-Chrétien, Anne Koenig, Jacques Derouard, and Jean-Marc Dinten
Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4) 569-583 (2013)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (8)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (2)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription