Abstract

A fiber-coupled near-infrared diode-laser sensor for stand-off measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and composition is presented. This sensor utilizes a fiber bundle with six multimode catch fibers surrounding one single-mode pitch fiber to transmit and receive backscattered laser light in a handheld transmitter/receiver. Scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with 1f-normalized 2f-detection and fast (80–200 kHz) wavelength modulation were used to provide calibration-free measurements and reduce the influence of spurious cavity noise formed by the overlapping transmitted and reflected laser light. Demonstrations include two-color measurements of temperature, pressure, and H2O near 1.4 μm in a propane flame at 2 kHz (SNR=200) and measurements of CH4 near 1.65 μm (SNR=20 to 1500) at stand-off distances of 15 cm and 10 m, respectively. The fraction of photons collected ranged from 104 to 1 parts per million at stand-off distances from 10 cm to 10 m, respectively, and is similar for aluminum and paper reflectors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  18. C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  21. C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

2015 (2)

Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

2013 (5)

A. W. Caswell, S. Roy, X. An, S. T. Sanders, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2893–2904 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, C. Meffert, S. Wagner, S. Kaiser, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “VCSEL-based, high-speed, in situ TDLAS for in-cylinder water vapor measurements in IC engines,” Opt. Express 21, 19951–19965 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. D. Rein and S. T. Sanders, “Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in reciprocating engines,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4728–4734 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Allen, M. G.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Allen, N.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Almodovar, C. A.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

Amann, M.-C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

An, X.

Anderson, J. G.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cassidy, D.

Caswell, A. W.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chao, X.

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubinsky, I.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ebert, V.

Engel, G.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Field, R. W.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goldenstein, C. S.

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

Gord, J. R.

Gordon, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Green, B.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 33, pp. 1–40.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Harrison, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeffries, J. B.

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

Kakuho, A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Keutsch, F.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kindle, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Klein, A.

Kroll, J.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Liu, J. T. C.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Liu, X.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Long, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Massie, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, T.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Meffert, C.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moyer, E.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mulhall, P.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Müller, H.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naper, R.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polovtseva, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reid, J.

Rein, K. D.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

Rybak, K.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sanders, S. T.

Sayres, D.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schauer, F. R.

Schultz, I. A.

Schulz, C.

Sholes, K. R.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Smith, C. H.

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

Smith, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spearrin, R. M.

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

St.Clair, J.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stafford-Evans, J.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinfeld, J. I.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strand, C. L.

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

K. Sun, “Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2013).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sur, R.

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

Takatani, S.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toon, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, S.

Wainner, R.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

Wehe, S. D.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

White, M.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Witzel, O.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (5)

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 33, pp. 1–40.

K. Sun, “Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for backscattered WMS - 2 f / 1 f measurements of temperature, pressure, and H 2 O in a flame (left) and CH 4 concentration (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fraction of incident photons collected as a function of stand-off distance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raw detector signal for backscattered WMS - 2 f / 1 f experiment at nonresonant wavelengths (left) and WMS - 2 f / 1 f absorption spectra (right) with f m = 10 and 160 kHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example measured and best-fit WMS - 2 f / 1 f spectra for H 2 O transitions (corresponding to t = 0.1 s ) (left) and time-resolved temperature and H 2 O mole fraction acquired in a turbulent propane flame using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 (left).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-resolved CH 4 concentration during a simulated CH 4 leak.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Frequency, Strength, and Lower-State Energy of the Absorption Transitions Used a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Collisional-Broadening Parameters of the H 2 O Transition Near 7185.59 cm 1 a

Equations (1)

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I t ( t ) = I o ( t ) exp [ α ( ν ( t ) ) ] = I o ( t ) exp [ j S j ( T ) P χ A b s ϕ j ( ν ( t ) , ν o , Δ ν D , Δ ν c ) L ] ,

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