Abstract

A ground-based, integrated path, differential absorption light detection and ranging (IPDA LIDAR) system is described and characterized for a series of nighttime studies of CO2, CH4, and H2O. The transmitter is based on an actively stabilized, continuous-wave, single-frequency external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) operating from 1.60 to 1.65 μm. The fixed frequency output of the ECDL is microwave sideband tuned using an electro-optical phase modulator driven by an arbitrary waveform generator and filtered using a confocal cavity to generate a sequence of 123 frequencies separated by 300 MHz. The scan sequence of single sideband frequencies of 600 ns duration covers a 37 GHz region at a spectral scan rate of 10 kHz (100 μs per scan). Simultaneously, an eye-safe backscatter LIDAR system at 1.064 μm is used to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer. IPDA LIDAR measurements of the CO2 and CH4 dry air mixing ratios are presented in comparison with those from a commercial cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument. Differences between the IPDA LIDAR and CRD concentrations in several cases appear to be well correlated with the atmospheric aerosol structure from the backscatter LIDAR measurements. IPDA LIDAR dry air mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 are determined with fit uncertainties of 2.8 μmol/mol (ppm) for CO2 and 22 nmol/mol (ppb) for CH4 over 30 s measurement periods. For longer averaging times (up to 1200 s), improvements in these detection limits by up to 3-fold are estimated from Allan variance analyses. Two sources of systematic error are identified and methods to remove them are discussed, including speckle interference from wavelength decorrelation and the seed power dependence of amplified spontaneous emission. Accuracies in the dry air retrievals of CO2 and CH4 in a 30 s measurement period are estimated at 4 μmol/mol (1% of ambient levels) and 50 nmol/mol (3%), respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

T. Delahaye, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, J. T. Hodges, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, and H. Tran, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 µm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 2360–2370 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Lin, Z. D. Reed, V. T. Sironneau, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 161, 11–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, C. Cénac, F. Le Mounier, and A. Dumas, “2-µm Ho emitter-based coherent DIAL for CO2 profiling in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3093–3096 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, and C. Cénac, “2-µm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 967–976 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Numata, S. Wu, and H. Riris, “Fast-switching methane lidar transmitter based on a seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 959–966 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Rieker, F. Giorgetta, W. Swann, J. Kofler, A. Zolot, L. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1, 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 489–495 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (10)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2696–2703 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, H. Fritsche, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, Z. G. Zhao, C. Schuett, and B. Kruschke, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 115804 (2013).
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W. Johnson, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2994–3003 (2013).

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous wave 1.57 µm fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2874–2892 (2013).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
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B. Lin, S. Ismail, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, A. R. Nehrir, J. Dobler, B. Moore, T. Refaat, and S. A. Kooi, “Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO2 column measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7062–7077 (2013).
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D. Sakaizawa, S. Kawakami, M. Nakajima, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, and O. Uchino, “An airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 µm differential laser absorption spectrometer: simultaneous measurement of partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 and target range,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 387–396 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. E. Christensen, M. W. Philips, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 µm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2098–2111 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance improvement and analysis of a 1.6 µm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for CO2 sensing,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1560–1569 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, T. Kimura, and M. Nakajima, “Feasibility study on 1.6 µm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for measurement of global CO2 concentration from a satellite,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2055–2068 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, T. W. Hilton, K. J. Davis, A. Andrews, P. H. Flamant, and U. N. Singh, “Can CO2 turbulent flux be measured by Lidar? A preliminary study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 28, 365–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 µm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).

J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, and G. C. Toon, “Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1 µm regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7303–7312 (2009).
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2008 (3)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 µm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyron, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. G. Shirley and P. A. Lo, “Bispectral analysis of the wavelength dependence of speckle: remote sensing of object shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1025–1046 (1994).
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1993 (1)

N. Gamage and C. Hagelberg, “Detection and analysis of microfronts and associated coherent events using localized transforms,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 750–756 (1993).

1992 (1)

L. G. Shirley, E. D. Ariel, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, and J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

Abo, M.

Abshire, J.

Abshire, J. B.

Allan, G. R.

Alpers, M.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

M. Bode, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, and P. Flamant, “MERLIN: an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for global methane remote sensing,” in International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Tenerife, Spain, 7–10 October2014.

Amediek, A.

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 µm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

Amzajerdian, F.

Andrews, A.

F. Gibert, G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, T. W. Hilton, K. J. Davis, A. Andrews, P. H. Flamant, and U. N. Singh, “Can CO2 turbulent flux be measured by Lidar? A preliminary study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 28, 365–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. E.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

Ariel, E. D.

L. G. Shirley, E. D. Ariel, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, and J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

Asai, K.

Ashworth, S. H.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aubourg, A.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Auvray, M.

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barnes, B. W.

Barret, B.

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berthier, S.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Bey, I.

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beyon, J. Y.

F. Gibert, G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, T. W. Hilton, K. J. Davis, A. Andrews, P. H. Flamant, and U. N. Singh, “Can CO2 turbulent flux be measured by Lidar? A preliminary study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 28, 365–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beyron, J.

Beyron, J. Y.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bode, M.

M. Bode, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, and P. Flamant, “MERLIN: an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for global methane remote sensing,” in International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Tenerife, Spain, 7–10 October2014.

Bosquet, P.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dumas, A.

Edouart, D.

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, C. Cénac, F. Le Mounier, and A. Dumas, “2-µm Ho emitter-based coherent DIAL for CO2 profiling in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3093–3096 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, and C. Cénac, “2-µm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 967–976 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Ehret, G.

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 µm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

M. Bode, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, and P. Flamant, “MERLIN: an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for global methane remote sensing,” in International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Tenerife, Spain, 7–10 October2014.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

Eichler, H. J.

X. Wang, H. Fritsche, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, Z. G. Zhao, C. Schuett, and B. Kruschke, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 115804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elsen, F.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

Esteve, F.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farrell, J. T.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Few, J. F. M.

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Filges, A.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Finlayson, A.

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fix, A.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 µm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

Flamant, P.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

M. Bode, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, and P. Flamant, “MERLIN: an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for global methane remote sensing,” in International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Tenerife, Spain, 7–10 October2014.

Flamant, P. H.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fritsche, H.

X. Wang, H. Fritsche, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, Z. G. Zhao, C. Schuett, and B. Kruschke, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 115804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukuoka, H.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gamage, N.

N. Gamage and C. Hagelberg, “Detection and analysis of microfronts and associated coherent events using localized transforms,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 750–756 (1993).

Gardiner, T. D.

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

A. Aubourg, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar’,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 048001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerbig, C.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

Gibert, F.

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, C. Cénac, F. Le Mounier, and A. Dumas, “2-µm Ho emitter-based coherent DIAL for CO2 profiling in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3093–3096 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, D. Edouart, and C. Cénac, “2-µm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 967–976 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, T. W. Hilton, K. J. Davis, A. Andrews, P. H. Flamant, and U. N. Singh, “Can CO2 turbulent flux be measured by Lidar? A preliminary study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 28, 365–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyron, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, “Complementary study of differential absorption lidar optimization in direct and heterodyne detections: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 46, 428 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, “Complementary study of differential absorption lidar optimization in direct and heterodyne detections,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4898–4908 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Giorgetta, F.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

J. W. Goodman, “Some problems involving higher-order coherence,” in Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985), pp. 237–285.

J. W. Goodman, “Fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light,” in Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985), pp. 465–527.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, P.

Hadji-Lazaro, J.

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
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Hagelberg, C.

N. Gamage and C. Hagelberg, “Detection and analysis of microfronts and associated coherent events using localized transforms,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 750–756 (1993).

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hallerman, G. R.

L. G. Shirley, E. D. Ariel, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, and J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

Harrison, F. W.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, and G. C. Toon, “Influence of line mixing on the retrievals of atmospheric CO2 from spectra in the 1.6 and 2.1 µm regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7303–7312 (2009).
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Hasselbrack, W. E.

Hatakka, J.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hilton, T. W.

F. Gibert, G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, T. W. Hilton, K. J. Davis, A. Andrews, P. H. Flamant, and U. N. Singh, “Can CO2 turbulent flux be measured by Lidar? A preliminary study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 28, 365–377 (2011).
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Hirano, Y.

Hodges, J. T.

T. Delahaye, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, J. T. Hodges, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, and H. Tran, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 µm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 2360–2370 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. D. Reed, V. T. Sironneau, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 161, 11–20 (2015).
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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 489–495 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2696–2703 (2013).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (14March2013).

Hoffmann, D.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

Hoffstädt, A.

A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

Hosken, D. J.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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Hurtmans, D.

B. Barret, S. Turquety, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, I. Bey, M. Auvray, and P.-F. Coheur, “Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2901–2914 (2005).
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Imaki, M.

Innocenti, F.

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
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Isaksson, T.

Ishii, S.

Ishikawa, T.

Ismail, S.

Itabe, T.

Iwai, H.

Jacob, J.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Johnson, W.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jungbluth, B.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

Kameyama, S.

Karion, A.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
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Kasemann, R.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

Kavaya, M. K.

Kawa, R.

Kawakami, S.

Kiemle, C.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
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A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

Kimura, T.

Klein, J.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

Klein, V.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Klingenberg, H.

A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

Koch, G. J.

Kofler, J.

Kooi, S.

Kooi, S. A.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Kruschke, B.

X. Wang, H. Fritsche, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, Z. G. Zhao, C. Schuett, and B. Kruschke, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 115804 (2013).
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Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” (1994).

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Le Mounier, F.

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lemmerz, C.

A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Li, S.

Lin, B.

Lin, H.

T. Delahaye, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, J. T. Hodges, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, and H. Tran, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 µm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 2360–2370 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. D. Reed, V. T. Sironneau, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 161, 11–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Livrozet, M. J.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

Lo, P. A.

Löhring, J.

M. J. Livrozet, F. Elsen, J. Wüppen, J. Löhring, C. Büdenbender, A. Fix, B. Jungbluth, and D. Hoffmann, “Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89590G (2014).

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 489–495 (2014).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2696–2703 (2013).
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Loth, C.

Luttmann, J.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

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Mackie, C. J.

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Massie, S. T.

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Meissner, A.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ottaway, D. J.

Payson, H. C.

L. G. Shirley, E. D. Ariel, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, and J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

Pelon, J.

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrin, R. R.

Petron, G.

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Philippe, B.

Philips, M. W.

Pierangelo, C.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

Plusquellic, D.

G. Wagner, S. Maxwell, and D. Plusquellic, “Integrated Path Detection of CO2 and CH4 using a waveform driven electro-optic single sideband laser source,” in Proceedings of the 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-02, [EPJ Web of Conferences 119 26002 (2016)].

Plusquellic, D. F.

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 489–495 (2014).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, J. R. Whetstone, J. T. Hodges, D. A. Long, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Rapid scan absorption spectroscopy using a waveform-driven electro-optic phase modulator in the 1.6–1.65 µm region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2696–2703 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. A. Wagner and D. F. Plusquellic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-power differential absorption lidar for detection of atmospheric CO2 and CH4.”

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (14March2013).

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Porch, W. M.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Quatrevalet, M.

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2195–2211 (2011).
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M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

Quick, C. R.

Ramanathan, A.

Reed, Z. D.

T. Delahaye, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, J. T. Hodges, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, and H. Tran, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 µm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 2360–2370 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. D. Reed, V. T. Sironneau, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 161, 11–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Refaat, T.

Rella, C. W.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Repasky, K. S.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Richardson, S. J.

C. W. Rella, H. Chen, A. E. Andrews, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, J. Hatakka, A. Karion, N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, M. Steinbacher, C. Sweeney, B. Wastine, and C. Zellweger, “High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 837–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riedle, E.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
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Rieker, G.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Riris, H.

Robinson, R. A.

R. A. Robinson, T. D. Gardiner, F. Innocenti, A. Finlayson, P. T. Woods, and J. F. M. Few, “First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar,” Environ. Sci. 16, 1957–1966 (2014).
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Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakai, T.

Sakaizawa, D.

Sato, A.

Schmitt, M. J.

Schuett, C.

X. Wang, H. Fritsche, O. Lux, H. J. Eichler, Z. G. Zhao, C. Schuett, and B. Kruschke, “Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 µm for methane differential absorption lidar,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 115804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schweyer, S.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

Shibata, Y.

Shirley, L. G.

L. G. Shirley and P. A. Lo, “Bispectral analysis of the wavelength dependence of speckle: remote sensing of object shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1025–1046 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. G. Shirley, E. D. Ariel, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, and J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

Simakov, N.

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L.

Singh, U. N.

Sironneau, V. T.

H. Lin, Z. D. Reed, V. T. Sironneau, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 161, 11–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spiers, G. D.

Spietz, P.

T. Delahaye, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, J. T. Hodges, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, and H. Tran, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 µm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 2360–2370 (2016).
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Starikova, E.

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Certain equipment, instruments or materials are identified in this paper in order to adequately specify the experimental details. Such identification does not imply recommendation by the National Institute of Standards and Technology nor does it imply the materials are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

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G. A. Wagner and D. F. Plusquellic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-power differential absorption lidar for detection of atmospheric CO2 and CH4.”

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A. Fix, G. Ehret, A. Hoffstädt, H. Klingenberg, C. Lemmerz, P. Mahnke, M. Ulbricht, M. Wirth, R. Wittig, and W. Zirnig, “CHARM–A helicopter-borne lidar system for pipeline monitoring,” in 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Matera, Italy, 2004.

M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, C. Büdenbender, S. Schweyer, G. Ehret, D. Hoffmann, A. Meissner, J. Löhring, and J. Luttmann, “CHARM-F: the airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 andCH4,” in 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2010.

A. Fix, A. Amediek, C. Büdenbender, G. Ehret, M. Quatrevalet, M. Wirth, J. Löhring, R. Kasemann, J. Klein, D. Hoffmann, and V. Klein, “Development and first results of a new near-ir airborne greenhouse gas lidar,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh1A.2.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, H. C. Büdenbender, C. Kiemle, J. Löhring, and C. Gerbig, “First airborne IPDA lidar measurements of methane and carbon dioxide applying the DLR greenhouse gas sounder CHARM-F,” in AGU 2015 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14–18 December2015, paper A22C.04.

M. Bode, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, and P. Flamant, “MERLIN: an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for global methane remote sensing,” in International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Tenerife, Spain, 7–10 October2014.

C. Pierangelo, B. Millet, F. Esteve, M. Alpers, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, S. Berthier, F. Gibert, O. Chomette, D. Edouart, P. Bosquet, and F. Chevallier, “MERLIN (methane remote sensing LIDAR mission): an overview,” in 27th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), New York, USA, 5–10 July2015, paper S13-01 [EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 26001 (2016)].

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

HITRAN 2012 [48] simulations for the wavelength regions near (a) 1602 nm and (b) 1645 nm. The simulated absorption spectra are calculated using Boulder (Colorado, USA; 1655 m above sea level) atmospheric conditions [829.6 hPa, 288.15 K (15°C), 35% relative humidity] and a path length of 5.5 km. The scan range of the IPDA LIDAR system is indicated with a double-headed arrow and yellow backgrounds and covers absorption lines of CO 2 and H 2 O in (a), and CH 4 and H 2 O in (b), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of overall measurement setup including the IPDA LIDAR and aerosol backscattter LIDAR systems and the location of the weather transmitter (Weather TX) and sampling tube for cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument [44]. The IPDA LIDAR transmitter assembly includes a beam expander and collimator (BEC) and is controlled using the motor control unit (MCU) to define an octagonal pattern on the Boulder Flatirons to minimize speckle (see text for details). The detection systems for the IPDA LIDAR and backscatter LIDAR are also shown and include a photomultiplier tube (PMT), amplifier/discriminator (AMP/DISC), and photon counting acquisition system (DAQ).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the optical and electrical arrangement of the IPDA frequency converter. The output of the external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) is coupled (FCP) into a polarization maintaining fiber (PM) and is split into a lock leg (5%) and a scan leg (95%). The lock leg is offset by 250 MHz using the 1st-order diffracted beam of an acoustic optic modulator (AOM) and slightly off-axis coupled (exaggerated in figure) to the filter cavity to permit lock points at the degenerate odd-order transverse modes (e.g., TEM 01 , TEM 10 , etc.) of the confocal FILTER CAVITY. The reflected carrier and small 1st-order sidebands that are added using an electro-optic modulator (EOM1) driven at 7 MHz are circulated (CIR) and detected on a 150 MHz photodetector (DET-PDH). The DET-PDH signal is mixed (MIX) with the 7 MHz radio frequency (RF) signal driving EOM1 to generate a PDH [53] error signal for signal conditioning (SCU) and then for closed loop feedback to the current input of the ECDL. The scan leg is first amplified in a booster optical amplifier (BOA1) and sidebands are added using EOM2 driven by a 12 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with amplifier (AMP). The output is mode matched to the filter cavity using a single lens (L1). The single sideband that is transmitted through the filter cavity is coupled into a PM fiber using lens L2 and further amplified using BOA2. The output is coupled through a 12 nm band-pass filter (FIL) and a 10% fiber split portion (FS2) is used for detection of the reference signal on a fast photodiode (DET-REF). The remaining light from FS2 (90%) is beam-expanded and collimated (BEC) for transmission to the atmosphere. The undefracted (0th-order) output of the AOM is used for both absolute frequency calibration using a wavemeter and absolute frequency stabilzation using a HeNe transfer cavity [54]. To improve detection sensitivity of CH 4 at 1645 nm where the quantum efficiency of the PMT is low, a second BOA (not shown) was added in series after BOA2 to increase output power to 13 mW. Other symbol definitions include the following: ISO, optical isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter cube; and FIL, dielectric filter for 1600 or 1645 nm having full widths at half maximum of 12 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

IPDA LIDAR raw data for atmospheric CO 2 obtained near 1602.2 nm for 30 s accumulation period and over a path length of 5.5    km . The scan consists of 123 frequencies with a step size of 300 MHz. The signals shown include (a) the original IPDA signal, (b) the transit time corrected IPDA LIDAR signal, and (c) the power-leveled reference signal. The delay Δ t is determined by cross-correlation of the original IPDA LIDAR signal with the reference signal. CTS/30 s: accumulated counts in 30 s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

IPDA LIDAR raw data for atmospheric CH 4 obtained near 1645.5 nm for 30 s accumulation period and over a path length of 5.5    km . The scan consists of 123 frequencies with a stepsize of 300 MHz. The signals shown include (a) the original IPDA LIDAR signal, (b) the transit time corrected IPDA LIDAR signal, and (c) the power-leveled reference signal. The delay Δ t is determined by cross-correlation of the original IPDA LIDAR signal with the reference signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absorbance data for (a)  CO 2 and (b)  CH 4 for 30 s accumulation period. The best fit Voigt line shape models based on HITRAN 2012 database [48] is superimposed and residuals are shown below the data.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Absorbance data and Voigt line shape fits over six consecutive 30 s intervals for (a) stationary transceiver and (b) moving transceiver. The repeating patterns shown in the residuals of (a) are more than 20% of the line absorbance and illustrate the effect of wavelength decorrelation from speckle interference at the receiver. The magnitude of the interference residuals [see residuals in (b)] are reduced by 10-fold when averaging over multiple path cycles of the moving transceiver.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transceiver position and path during an 11 h nighttime run. The octagonal path maintains continuous motion of the transceiver following serial control commands to the telescope mount motor control unit (MCU, see Fig. 2). The blue crosses represent recorded position information and the red lines represent the transceiver path ( 3000 consecutive path cycles). The yellow dot represents the starting point (transceiver home position).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Two-dimensional plot of the backscatter intensity across the viewable region near the top of the Rocky Mountain Flatirons from our laboratory window. Non-Lambertian scattering from different regions on the mountain (yellow to dark brown) results in a 2- to 3-fold change in the backscatter intensity. The sky gives very little backscatter (bluest-green).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Accumulated photon counts over 100 μs intervals as a function of time for the stationary (top panel) and moving transceiver (lower panel) with path defined in Fig. 8. The slow variations seen in the upper panel are a result of atmospheric turbulence. The larger fluctuations in the lower panel result from albedo variations over 5 octagonal path cycles of the transceiver, which obscure the effects of atmospheric turbulence.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Probability density functions (PDF) determined for 3 million intervals for the stationary (red crosses) and moving (blue crosses) transceiver telescope. The decrease in the peak magnitude and increase in the distribution width for the moving transceiver result from intensity fluctuations caused by albedo variations over the mountain terrain. Curves from fits to the data using Eq. (7) are shown for the stationary (red dashed) and moving (blue dashed) transceiver and the best-fit parameters given in Table 4 are used to access the degree of variance added as a result of transceiver motion. The solid curves (orange for stationary and violet for moving transceiver) are from Eq. (7) using M S determined for the transceiver aperture and K ¯ calculated from the data.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Measured magnitudes of ASE suppression when the seed laser sidebands are enabled. The spectral powers of the IPDA LIDAR output are measured using an optical spectrum analyzer for different seed frequencies that sample across the full tuning range of the system. The spectra are centered in (a) near 1600 nm for the CO 2 region and in (b) near 1645 nm for the CH 4 region and band-pass limited to ± 6    nm . The powers are also shown when the seed laser sideband is off.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Nighttime CO 2 dry air mixing ratios measured using the IPDA LIDAR and CRD instruments (top panel) on (a) October 10, 2015 and (b) October 12, 2015. The water concentrations measured with the IPDA LIDAR system are shown in the middle panel together with the data from the CRD and humidity sensors. The water concentration is given in PCM or percent by volume. The range-resolved aerosol backscatter LIDAR measurements in the lower panel are used to monitor the top of the boundary layer. The temporal resolution of the backscatter LIDAR measurements is 180 s and color-coding provides the intensity of the background and range-corrected signal intensity. The covariance transform defined in [68] is used to determine the height at the top of the boundary layer and/or other aerosol layers where the black dots indicate the lowest layer separation. The red dashed line represents the height at the top of the mountain. Local time is UTC minus 6 h.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Nighttime CH 4 dry air mixing ratios measured using the IPDA LIDAR and CRD instruments (top panel) on (a) October 18, 2015 and (b) October 19, 2015. A description of the other data follows that of Fig. 13.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Allan deviation analyses to access the long-term stability of the IPDA LIDAR system for data acquired on (a) October 11, 2015 UTC for CO 2 and (b) October 17, 2015 UTC for CH 4 . The analyses assume no change in the atmospheric concentrations of the two trace gases over the full nighttime period and therefore, represent lower bounds on the instrument performance. The curve minima represent the averaging time required to reach the minimum limit of detection calibrated in μ mol / mol (ppm).

Tables (7)

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Table 1. Specifications of Deployed CO 2 , CH 4 DIAL and IPDA LIDAR Systems Using Direct Detection and Systems of Relevance for This Work Using Coherent Detection a

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Table 2. Transmitter Requirements for Ground-based, Eye-safe IPDA LIDAR System for Continuous Nighttime Monitoring of CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O for Ranges up to 5 km a

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Table 3. Specifications [44] of CO 2 and CH 4 IPDA LIDAR System Having a Coaxial Transceiver Arrangement a

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Table 4. Best-fit Values to Eq. (7) of the Average Photon Counts, K ¯ , and the Other Degrees of Freedom, M , that Contribute to the Total Observed Variance, σ K , obs. 2 , for 10 Sets of Integrated Intensity Measurements made at 5 Different Frequencies Using a Stationary and Moving Transceiver a

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Table 5. Measured ASE Suppression Factors, f ASE , for Baseline Corrections of the CO 2 and CH 4 Data a

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Table 6. Error Budget for IPDA LIDAR Measurements of CO 2 and CH 4 a

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Table 7. Specifications [44] of Aerosol Backscatter LIDAR System with Coaxial Transceiver Arrangement a

Equations (8)

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ν EO ( i ) = [ f n + i ] ν FS O R , i : [ 0 ; 62 ] ,
ν EO + ( i ) = [ 1 f n + i ] ν FS O R , i : [ 0 ; 62 ] ,
f = [ O R 2 O R O L + O H ] ,
ν FS = n ν MS ,
[ CO 2 ] dry = [ CO 2 ] fit / ( 1 0.01 · [ H 2 O ] fit ) ,
P ( K ) = Γ ( K + M ) Γ ( K + 1 ) Γ ( M ) [ 1 + M K ¯ ] K [ 1 + K ¯ M ] M ,
P ( K ) exp ( 1 ) 2 π M ( K + 1 ) ( K + M ) ( K + 1 K ¯ ) K ( 1 + K ¯ K M + K ) ( M + K ) .
δ K 2 = K ¯ ( 1 + K ¯ M ) ,

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