Abstract

Automation of alignment tasks can provide improved efficiency and greatly increase the flexibility of an optical system. Current optical systems with automated alignment capabilities are typically designed to include a dedicated wavefront sensor. Here, we demonstrate a self-aligning method for a reconfigurable system using only focal plane images. We define a two lens optical system with 8 degrees of freedom. Images are simulated given misalignment parameters using ZEMAX software. We perform a principal component analysis on the simulated data set to obtain Karhunen–Loève modes, which form the basis set whose weights are the system measurements. A model function, which maps the state to the measurement, is learned using nonlinear least-squares fitting and serves as the measurement function for the nonlinear estimator (extended and unscented Kalman filters) used to calculate control inputs to align the system. We present and discuss simulated and experimental results of the full system in operation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (3)

X. Wang, J. K. Wallace, and F. Shi, “Zernike wavefront sensor modeling development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Riggs, N. J. Kasdin, and T. D. Groff, “Wavefront correction with Kalman filtering for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960507 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Gu, C. Yan, and Y. Wang, “Alignment of a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope using nodal aberration theory,” Opt. Express 23, 25182–25201 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

H. Lee, G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, and B. L. Vattiat, “Fine optical alignment correction of astronomical spectrographs via in-situ full-field moment-based wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500V (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Soummer, L. Pueyo, and J. Larkin, “Detection and characterization of exoplanets and disks using projections on Karhunen-Loève eigenimages,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 755, L28 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Savransky, S. J. Thomas, L. A. Poyneer, D. W. Palmer, R. J. De Rosa, and M. Hartung, “Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476S (2012).

2010 (2)

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[Crossref]

E.-S. Oh, S. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Lee, S.-W. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integration of differential wavefront sampling with merit function regression for efficient alignment of three-mirror anastigmat optical system,” Proc. SPIE 7793, 77930F (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

O. Guyon, E. Pluzhnik, M. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial Planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Z. Lou, D. Redding, N. Sigrist, Y. Zhang, and S. Basinger, “JWST on-orbit multi-field wavefront control with a Kalman filter,” Proc. SPIE 5867, 58670T (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. C. Redding, N. Sigrist, J. Z. Lou, Y. Zhang, P. D. Atcheson, D. S. Acton, and W. L. Hayden, “Optical state estimation using wavefront data,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 212–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “Unscented filtering and nonlinear estimation,” Proc. IEEE 92, 401–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Gao, L. Chen, S. Zhou, and R. Zhu, “Computer-aided alignment for a reference transmission sphere of an interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 69–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

G. F. Hartig, J. E. Krist, A. R. Martel, H. C. Ford, and G. D. Illingworth, “On-orbit alignment and imaging performance of the HST advanced camera for surveys,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 532–543 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Dial, H. Bowen, F. Gerlach, J. Grodecki, and R. Oleszczuk, “IKONOS satellite, imagery, and products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Toutin and P. Cheng, “Quickbird-a milestone for high-resolution mapping,” Earth Obser. Mag. 11, 14–18 (2002).

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, “Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus,” Ophthalmology 109, 1996–2003 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. F. Dantowitz, S. W. Teare, and M. J. Kozubal, “Ground-based high-resolution imaging of mercury,” Astron. J. 119, 2455–2457 (2000).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. W. Figoski, T. E. Shrode, and G. F. Moore, “Computer-aided alignment of a wide-field, three-mirror, unobscured, high-resolution sensor,” Proc. SPIE 1049, 166–177 (1989).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 0207, 32–39 (1979).
[Crossref]

Acton, D. S.

D. C. Redding, N. Sigrist, J. Z. Lou, Y. Zhang, P. D. Atcheson, D. S. Acton, and W. L. Hayden, “Optical state estimation using wavefront data,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 212–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atcheson, P. D.

D. C. Redding, N. Sigrist, J. Z. Lou, Y. Zhang, P. D. Atcheson, D. S. Acton, and W. L. Hayden, “Optical state estimation using wavefront data,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 212–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barman, T.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basinger, S.

J. Z. Lou, D. Redding, N. Sigrist, Y. Zhang, and S. Basinger, “JWST on-orbit multi-field wavefront control with a Kalman filter,” Proc. SPIE 5867, 58670T (2005).
[Crossref]

Baudoz, P.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belikov, R.

Bowen, H.

G. Dial, H. Bowen, F. Gerlach, J. Grodecki, and R. Oleszczuk, “IKONOS satellite, imagery, and products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burrows, A. S.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardwell, A.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Z. Gao, L. Chen, S. Zhou, and R. Zhu, “Computer-aided alignment for a reference transmission sphere of an interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 69–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cheng, P.

T. Toutin and P. Cheng, “Quickbird-a milestone for high-resolution mapping,” Earth Obser. Mag. 11, 14–18 (2002).

Chidlaw, R.

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 0207, 32–39 (1979).
[Crossref]

Chilcote, J.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. Pluzhnik, M. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial Planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dalton, G. B.

Dantowitz, R. F.

R. F. Dantowitz, S. W. Teare, and M. J. Kozubal, “Ground-based high-resolution imaging of mercury,” Astron. J. 119, 2455–2457 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Rosa, R. J.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Savransky, S. J. Thomas, L. A. Poyneer, D. W. Palmer, R. J. De Rosa, and M. Hartung, “Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476S (2012).

Dial, G.

G. Dial, H. Bowen, F. Gerlach, J. Grodecki, and R. Oleszczuk, “IKONOS satellite, imagery, and products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dillon, D.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dunn, J.

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Marchis, F.

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Marley, M. S.

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Patience, J.

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Sadakuni, N.

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B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
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B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
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Serio, A.

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Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, I.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Soummer, L. Pueyo, and J. Larkin, “Detection and characterization of exoplanets and disks using projections on Karhunen-Loève eigenimages,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 755, L28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stengel, R. F.

R. F. Stengel, Optimal Control and Estimation (Dover, 2012).

Tano, Y.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, “Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus,” Ophthalmology 109, 1996–2003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Teare, S. W.

R. F. Dantowitz, S. W. Teare, and M. J. Kozubal, “Ground-based high-resolution imaging of mercury,” Astron. J. 119, 2455–2457 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thomas, S.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, S. J.

D. Savransky, S. J. Thomas, L. A. Poyneer, and B. A. Macintosh, “Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3394–3403 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Savransky, S. J. Thomas, L. A. Poyneer, D. W. Palmer, R. J. De Rosa, and M. Hartung, “Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476S (2012).

Tosh, I. A.

Totems, J.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[Crossref]

Toutin, T.

T. Toutin and P. Cheng, “Quickbird-a milestone for high-resolution mapping,” Earth Obser. Mag. 11, 14–18 (2002).

Tuttle, S. E.

H. Lee, G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, and B. L. Vattiat, “Fine optical alignment correction of astronomical spectrographs via in-situ full-field moment-based wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500V (2012).
[Crossref]

Uhlmann, J. K.

S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “Unscented filtering and nonlinear estimation,” Proc. IEEE 92, 401–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “New extension of the Kalman filter to nonlinear systems,” in AeroSense’97 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1997), pp. 182–193.

Van Der Merwe, R.

E. Wan and R. Van Der Merwe, “The unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear estimation,” in Adaptive Systems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control Symposium (AS-SPCC) (IEEE, 2000), pp. 153–158.

Vattiat, B. L.

H. Lee, G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, and B. L. Vattiat, “Fine optical alignment correction of astronomical spectrographs via in-situ full-field moment-based wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500V (2012).
[Crossref]

Wallace, J. K.

X. Wang, J. K. Wallace, and F. Shi, “Zernike wavefront sensor modeling development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960528 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, E.

E. Wan and R. Van Der Merwe, “The unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear estimation,” in Adaptive Systems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control Symposium (AS-SPCC) (IEEE, 2000), pp. 153–158.

Wandinger, U.

U. Wandinger, “Introduction to lidar,” in Lidar (Springer, 2005), pp. 1–18.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. K. Wallace, and F. Shi, “Zernike wavefront sensor modeling development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, H.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, “Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus,” Ophthalmology 109, 1996–2003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wiktorowicz, S.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolff, S.

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

Yang, H.-S.

E.-S. Oh, S. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Lee, S.-W. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integration of differential wavefront sampling with merit function regression for efficient alignment of three-mirror anastigmat optical system,” Proc. SPIE 7793, 77930F (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, H.-S. Yang, Y.-W. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Merit function regression method for efficient alignment control of two-mirror optical systems,” Opt. Express 15, 5059–5068 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yip, P. C.

K. R. Rao and P. C. Yip, The Transform and Data Compression Handbook (CRC Press, 2000).

Zhang, Y.

J. Z. Lou, D. Redding, N. Sigrist, Y. Zhang, and S. Basinger, “JWST on-orbit multi-field wavefront control with a Kalman filter,” Proc. SPIE 5867, 58670T (2005).
[Crossref]

D. C. Redding, N. Sigrist, J. Z. Lou, Y. Zhang, P. D. Atcheson, D. S. Acton, and W. L. Hayden, “Optical state estimation using wavefront data,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 212–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Z. Gao, L. Chen, S. Zhou, and R. Zhu, “Computer-aided alignment for a reference transmission sphere of an interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 69–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

Z. Gao, L. Chen, S. Zhou, and R. Zhu, “Computer-aided alignment for a reference transmission sphere of an interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 69–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[Crossref]

Astron. J. (1)

R. F. Dantowitz, S. W. Teare, and M. J. Kozubal, “Ground-based high-resolution imaging of mercury,” Astron. J. 119, 2455–2457 (2000).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

R. Soummer, L. Pueyo, and J. Larkin, “Detection and characterization of exoplanets and disks using projections on Karhunen-Loève eigenimages,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 755, L28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

O. Guyon, E. Pluzhnik, M. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial Planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Earth Obser. Mag. (1)

T. Toutin and P. Cheng, “Quickbird-a milestone for high-resolution mapping,” Earth Obser. Mag. 11, 14–18 (2002).

Ophthalmology (1)

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, “Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus,” Ophthalmology 109, 1996–2003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Gao, L. Chen, S. Zhou, and R. Zhu, “Computer-aided alignment for a reference transmission sphere of an interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 43, 69–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “Unscented filtering and nonlinear estimation,” Proc. IEEE 92, 401–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, P. Ingraham, Q. Konopacky, C. Marois, M. Perrin, L. Poyneer, B. Bauman, T. Barman, A. S. Burrows, A. Cardwell, J. Chilcote, R. J. De Rosa, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. Erikson, M. P. Fitzgerald, D. Gavel, S. Goodsell, M. Hartung, P. Hibon, P. Kalas, J. Larkin, J. Maire, F. Marchis, M. S. Marley, J. McBride, M. Millar-Blanchaer, K. Morzinski, A. Norton, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, J. Patience, L. Pueyo, F. Rantakyro, N. Sadakuni, L. Saddlemyer, D. Savransky, A. Serio, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, I. Song, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, S. Wiktorowicz, and S. Wolff, “First light of the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12661–12666 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (10)

G. F. Hartig, J. E. Krist, A. R. Martel, H. C. Ford, and G. D. Illingworth, “On-orbit alignment and imaging performance of the HST advanced camera for surveys,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 532–543 (2003).
[Crossref]

E.-S. Oh, S. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Lee, S.-W. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integration of differential wavefront sampling with merit function regression for efficient alignment of three-mirror anastigmat optical system,” Proc. SPIE 7793, 77930F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Figoski, T. E. Shrode, and G. F. Moore, “Computer-aided alignment of a wide-field, three-mirror, unobscured, high-resolution sensor,” Proc. SPIE 1049, 166–177 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Savransky, S. J. Thomas, L. A. Poyneer, D. W. Palmer, R. J. De Rosa, and M. Hartung, “Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476S (2012).

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 0207, 32–39 (1979).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. K. Wallace, and F. Shi, “Zernike wavefront sensor modeling development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960528 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. C. Redding, N. Sigrist, J. Z. Lou, Y. Zhang, P. D. Atcheson, D. S. Acton, and W. L. Hayden, “Optical state estimation using wavefront data,” Proc. SPIE 5523, 212–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Lou, D. Redding, N. Sigrist, Y. Zhang, and S. Basinger, “JWST on-orbit multi-field wavefront control with a Kalman filter,” Proc. SPIE 5867, 58670T (2005).
[Crossref]

A. E. Riggs, N. J. Kasdin, and T. D. Groff, “Wavefront correction with Kalman filtering for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument,” Proc. SPIE 9605, 960507 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, and B. L. Vattiat, “Fine optical alignment correction of astronomical spectrographs via in-situ full-field moment-based wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500V (2012).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

F. Martinache, “The asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 125, 422–430 (2013).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

G. Dial, H. Bowen, F. Gerlach, J. Grodecki, and R. Oleszczuk, “IKONOS satellite, imagery, and products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 23–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

U. Wandinger, “Introduction to lidar,” in Lidar (Springer, 2005), pp. 1–18.

K. R. Rao and P. C. Yip, The Transform and Data Compression Handbook (CRC Press, 2000).

J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm: implementation and theory,” in Numerical Analysis (Springer, 1978), pp. 105–116.

E. Wan and R. Van Der Merwe, “The unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear estimation,” in Adaptive Systems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control Symposium (AS-SPCC) (IEEE, 2000), pp. 153–158.

S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “New extension of the Kalman filter to nonlinear systems,” in AeroSense’97 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1997), pp. 182–193.

R. F. Stengel, Optimal Control and Estimation (Dover, 2012).

J. Hedrick and A. Girard, “Control of nonlinear dynamic systems: theory and applications,” in Controllability and Observability of Nonlinear Systems (2005), p. 48.

T. Groff, N. J. Kasdin, and M. A. Peters, “Focal plane wavefront estimation using an integral field spectrograph,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–8.

J. Rolland and H. Hua, “Head-mounted display systems,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (Taylor & Francis, 2005), pp. 1–13.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two lens optical system. A collimated Gaussian beam is passed through two moving lenses A and B and focuses on a CCD camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of control system. Upper dashed block represents the optical system in Fig. 1. Lower dashed block represents a Kalman filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Subframe of the simulated image from Zemax and its 2D Gaussian fitting in contour plot. Gaussian center C x and C y will be used as our measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

First 12 KL modes obtained from PCA decomposition with subframe 250 × 250 pixels. Each image is plotted under different intensity scale, and its corresponding eigenvalue is shown under the mode number in log scale.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reconstruction of simulated image in Fig. 3 using the first six KL modes. Subtracted image shows the difference ( v ¯ i c ¯ i ) between the simulated image in Fig. 3 and reconstructed images. (a) Reconstructed image. (b) Subtracted image.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Residual error with modes 1–8 used in image reconstruction. Images are plotted under the same intensity scale. The reconstruction error decreases gradually as the number of modes used increases.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reconstruction RMS pixel error using the first 10 modes. Blue-circle markers and red-square markers represent errors in the simulation and experiment, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Histogram of the residual e 1 to e 7 and their best fitted normal distribution. The closer the error distribution is to normal distribution, the more reliable the model is in Kalman filtering.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

RMS state residuals of IEFK and UKF in the simulation. Blue-diamond line and red-circle line represent IEKF and UKF estimation. Green-square line and the magenta-cross line represent the state residuals with full state feedback after the 25th step in IEKF and UKF, respectively.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

RMS standard deviation (STD) of state estimation using IEFK and UKF in the simulation. Blue-diamond line and red-circle line represent IEKF and UKF estimation. Green-square line and the magenta-cross line represent the STD of state estimate with full state feedback after the 25th step in IEKF and UKF, respectively.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experiment setup of optical model shown in Fig. 1. A collimated laser beam passes through a ND filter, two moving lenses A and B, and focuses on a CCD camera. The optical system after the ND filter is set up as the one simulated in ZEMAX.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Residual error of the reconstruction of a single image acquired with the experimental setup shown in Fig. 11. The first eight KL modes derived in simulation are used. Images are plotted using the same intensity scale. As in simulation, the reconstruction error decreases gradually as the number of modes used increases.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Stage positions from step 1 to 50 using IEKF. Stages 1–4 correspond to the shift stages, and stages 5–8 are the tip and tilt stages driven by translation motors.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Experimental image before and after state feedback. The left image shows the 300 × 300 subframe before the correction, and the right image is the subframe after the correction. The intersection of the green lines represents the center of the camera.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

RMS standard deviation of state estimate averaging over 20 experiments. Blue-diamond line and red-cross line represent IEKF and UKF, respectively.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. NRMSE of Measurement y 1 to y 7 a

Tables Icon

Table 2. List of Components and Devices in the Experiment

Tables Icon

Table 3. STD of Stage Convergence Value in 20 Runs a

Tables Icon

Table 4. Coefficients of Nonlinear Measurement Function h ( x ) a

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( x , y ) = G 1 + G 2 exp ( ( x a ) 2 ( y b ) 2 2 ) x = ( x C x ) cos φ ( y C y ) sin φ y = ( x C x ) sin φ + ( y C y ) cos φ .
v ¯ i = v i μ ( v i ) ,
V ¯ = [ v ¯ 1 , v ¯ 2 , , v ¯ n ] .
S = 1 p 1 V ¯ T V ¯ ,
S Φ = Φ Λ ,
Z = V ¯ Φ ,
w i = Z m v ¯ i ,
c ¯ i = Z m w i ,
ϵ i = ( v ¯ i c ¯ i ) T ( v ¯ i c ¯ i ) p
y = [ w 2 w 1 , w 3 w 1 , w 4 w 1 , w 5 w 1 , w 6 w 1 , C x , C y ] .
NRMSE ( e j ) = ( i = 1 n e j , i ) / n max y j min y j ,
R model = ee T
x k = F k x k 1 + B k u k + q k , y k = g k ( x k ) + r k ,

Metrics