Abstract

Spatial light modulators (SLMs) support flexible system concepts in modern optics and especially phase-only SLMs such as micromirror arrays (MMAs) appear attractive for many applications. In order to achieve a precise phase modulation, which is crucial for optical performance, careful characterization and calibration of SLM devices is required. We examine an intensity-based measurement concept, which promises distinct advantages by means of a spatially resolved scatter measurement that is combined with the MMA’s diffractive principle. Measurements yield quantitative results, which are consistent with measurements of micromirror roughness components, by white-light interferometry. They reveal relative scatter as low as 104, which corresponds to contrast ratios up to 10,000. The potential of the technique to resolve phase changes in the subnanometer range is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (5)

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 1: theory and basic considerations,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041310 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 2: applications,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041311 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, J. Xia, C. Chang, X. Zhang, Z. Yang, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear dynamic phase response calibration by digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 54, 7799–7806 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

F. P. Ferreira and M. S. Belsley, “Direct calibration of a spatial light modulator by lateral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express 18, 7899–7904 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Voelkel and K. J. Weible, “Laser beam homogenizing: limitations and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020J (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Martinsson and T. Sandstrom, “Gray scaling in high performance optical pattern generators,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920T (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bakke, T.

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baldry, I. K.

I. K. Baldry, “Time-Series Spectroscopy of Pulsating Stars,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Sydney, 1999), Chap. 3.

Belsley, M. S.

Bengtsson, J.

Bergstrom, A.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Berndt, D.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, “Optische Kalibrierung von diffraktiven Mikrospiegelarrays,” Ph.D. thesis (in German) (Technische Universität Dresden, 2012).

Berzinsh, U.

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bjoernangen, P.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Björnängen, P.

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bleeker, A.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bring, M.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Chen, J.

Chu, D.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dauderstaedt, U.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Duerr, P.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Dürr, P.

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eckert, M.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

Eliceiri, K.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Engström, D.

Ferreira, F. P.

Friedrichs, M.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frise, E.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fukuchi, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Furtak, T. E.

M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, 1986).

Gao, W.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, 1978).

Gehner, A.

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

Goksör, M.

Haist, T.

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 1: theory and basic considerations,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041310 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 2: applications,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041311 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hara, T.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Hartenstein, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heber, J.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hintersteiner, J. D.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Hughes, T.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Igasaki, Y.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Jonsson, F.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Karlin, T.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaynig, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. V.

M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, 1986).

Kluge, W.

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

Knobbe, J.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Komenda, O.

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

Kunze, D.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lakner, H.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lapisa, M.

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, J.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

List, M.

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Longair, M.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luberek, J.

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ludewig, T.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Måhlén, J.

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Martinsson and T. Sandstrom, “Gray scaling in high performance optical pattern generators,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920T (2005).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Mu, Q.

Müller, M.

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

Neumann, H.

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

Newman, T.

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Niklaus, F.

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 2: applications,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041311 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 1: theory and basic considerations,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Öström, T.

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Persson, M.

Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Preibisch, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reichelt, S.

Ronnholm, P.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Rosling, M.

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rößler, J.

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

Rückerl, F.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

Rudloff, D.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rueden, C.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sandstrom, T.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Martinsson and T. Sandstrom, “Gray scaling in high performance optical pattern generators,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920T (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sandström, T.

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schenk, H.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schindelin, J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmid, B.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, J.-U.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwaten, T.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Séchaud, M.

M. Séchaud, “Wave-front compensating devices,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 57–90.

Shorte, S.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sicker, C.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinning, S.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

Sjöberg, H.

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, W.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw, 2007).

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).

Takumi, M.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Tinevez, J.-Y.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomancak, P.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trenkler, D.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Wijngaart, W.

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Voelkel, R.

R. Voelkel and K. J. Weible, “Laser beam homogenizing: limitations and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020J (2008).
[Crossref]

Völker, B.

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M.

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weible, K. J.

R. Voelkel and K. J. Weible, “Laser beam homogenizing: limitations and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020J (2008).
[Crossref]

White, D. J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wildenhain, M.

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

Wolschke, S.

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

Wullinger, I.

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, J.

Xuan, L.

Yang, L.

Yang, Z.

Yoshida, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

You, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zimmer, F.

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Li, Y. Qiao, J. Si, and W. Gao, “Compensation of phase nonlinearity of liquid crystal spatial light modulator for high-resolution wavefront correction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15036 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (3)

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 1: theory and basic considerations,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041310 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Haist and W. Osten, “Holography using pixelated spatial light modulators-part 2: applications,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14, 041311 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Meth. (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Meth. 9, 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (13)

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, 64870Y (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Martinsson and T. Sandstrom, “Gray scaling in high performance optical pattern generators,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920T (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Sjöberg, T. Karlin, M. Rosling, T. Öström, J. Måhlén, and T. Newman, “Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements,” Proc. SPIE 6283, 628305 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, U. Dauderstaedt, P. Duerr, M. Friedrichs, T. Hughes, T. Ludewig, D. Rudloff, T. Schwaten, D. Trenkler, M. Wagner, I. Wullinger, A. Bergstrom, P. Bjoernangen, F. Jonsson, T. Karlin, P. Ronnholm, and T. Sandstrom, “High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for laser direct imaging and other patterning applications,” Proc. SPIE 8977, 89770O (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, J. Heber, M. Friedrichs, D. Rudloff, J. Rößler, D. Berndt, H. Neumann, W. Kluge, M. Eckert, M. List, M. Müller, and M. Wagner, “Technology development of diffractive micromirror arrays for the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77162L (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Bakke, B. Völker, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, H. Schenk, and H. Lakner, “Large scale, drift free monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays made by wafer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 6114, 611402 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmer, F. Niklaus, M. Lapisa, T. Ludewig, M. Bring, M. Friedrichs, T. Bakke, H. Schenk, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Fabrication of large-scale monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays using adhesive wafer transfer bonding,” Proc. SPIE 7208, 720807 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Rudloff, S. Wolschke, M. Eckert, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Calibration of diffractive micromirror arrays for microscopy applications,” Proc. SPIE 8191, 81910O (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, D. Kunze, P. Dürr, D. Rudloff, M. Wagner, P. Björnängen, J. Luberek, U. Berzinsh, T. Sandström, and T. Karlin, “Contrast properties of spatial light modulators for microlithography,” Proc. SPIE 6730, 673035 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Voelkel and K. J. Weible, “Laser beam homogenizing: limitations and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020J (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Berndt, J. Heber, S. Sinning, D. Kunze, J. Knobbe, J.-U. Schmidt, M. Bring, D. Rudloff, M. Friedrichs, J. Rößler, M. Eckert, W. Kluge, H. Neumann, M. Wagner, and H. Lakner, “Multispectral characterization of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7718, 77180Q (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Sicker, J. Heber, D. Berndt, F. Rückerl, J.-Y. Tinevez, S. Shorte, M. Wagner, and H. Schenk, “Spatially resolved contrast measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9375, 93750D (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Gehner, M. Wildenhain, J. Knobbe, and O. Komenda, “MEMS analog light processing: an enabling technology for adaptive optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130K (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).

M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, 1986).

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, 1978).

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw, 2007).

http://www.photometrics.com/resources/learningzone/linearity.php (retrieved 2016-02-05).

I. K. Baldry, “Time-Series Spectroscopy of Pulsating Stars,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Sydney, 1999), Chap. 3.

D. Berndt, “Optische Kalibrierung von diffraktiven Mikrospiegelarrays,” Ph.D. thesis (in German) (Technische Universität Dresden, 2012).

M. Séchaud, “Wave-front compensating devices,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 57–90.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MMA device developed by Fraunhofer IPMS for microscopy applications consisting of 256 × 256 torsional micromirrors with 16 μm pitch in a ceramic packaging (left) and a SEM micrograph (right) showing individual micromirrors together with the underlying hinge and electrode structures. For a detailed description of the technology see [17].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Zero-order diffraction intensity I 0 of an ideal, laser-illuminated MMA (wavelength λ , normal incidence) with equally deflected micromirrors. The special cases of zero deflection (micromirrors form a plane, reflective surface) and d = n λ / 4 (blaze condition) are highlighted. d , deflection; p , mirror pitch; sinc ( x ) sin ( x ) / x .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Surface corrugation of real MMAs causes scatter (not to scale).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Simplified configuration in a typical ARS measurement where light scatter is measured in spatial-frequency space. (b) Principle of a spatially resolved scatter measurement of diffractive MMAs. A 4 f arrangement of two convex lenses (or mirrors) provides the transformation back into position-space enabling spatially resolved measurements. The Fourier aperture blocks all higher diffraction orders to facilitate the separation of diffraction and scatter when the MMA is driven as a blazed grating (see Section 2B). Corresponding to the angle between the optical axis and the MMA normal, the detector is slightly inclined (Scheimpflug imaging [27]). Both the angle and the inclination are exaggerated for clarity. FT, Fourier transform; f , focal distance.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Sketch of the multispectral, mostly reflective measurement setup. The beam paths for all wavelengths are identical after the superposition cascade. In the experiment only one laser at a time is utilized to realize a monochromatic illumination of the MMA. The figure is not to scale and especially the angles of the incident and reflected light at the MMA are exaggerated. Folding mirrors are omitted for clarity.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Relative gain measurements of the employed CCD camera for three different wavelengths show a pronounced, wavelength-independent nonlinearity. A fit (solid line) is used to correct the camera signal for this nonlinearity.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Principle of intensity-based MMA calibration: (a) for several deflection settings d ( k ) the intensities for each micromirror image position are measured; (b) for each micromirror the deflection, where the intensity becomes minimal, is determined and all of these are combined into a deflection map d ^ .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Approximate relation of the camera image coordinate system ( x , y ) and the MMA coordinate system ( r , c ) in the current system configuration. O cam and O MMA are the respective origins of the two coordinate systems. (b), (c) Geometric interpretation of the translation vector t and the rotation angle ϕ . See Eq. (6).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Geometric calibration in two steps: (a) image of the MMA with successfully detected and localized corner patterns. (b) Same MMA with a grid of reference spots created by deflecting individual micromirrors. (c) Detail of a single spot in its bounding box; the pixel closest to the measured spot position (red dot) and the pixel closest to the calculated spot position with optimal transformation (green dot). All images have been normalized to a MMA image where all micromirrors have zero deflection.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Data processing for spatially resolved scatter measurements. For a particular illumination wavelength, multiple scatter images are acquired with the deflections calibrated toward minimal intensity (see Section 3C) and reference images with all deflections set to zero. Both image sets are fed into an image processing chain and divided afterward to generate a (relative) scatter map. See main text for a detailed description of the image processing chain.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Scatter map of an MMA device with particularly low scatter at a wavelength of 532 nm with calibrated deflections (refer to Section 3C).The relative scatter across the MMA is represented by the gray value using a logarithmic scale as shown in the scale bar. The whole active area consisting of 256 × 256 micromirrors with a 16 μm pitch is shown. (The bright spots correspond to localized scatter centers such as, e.g., dust particles on the MMA.) (b) The profile along the indicated line in the scatter map (yellow line) shows a strong spatial variation of the scatter of nearly one order of magnitude. Additional measurements where the mirror deflections were globally offset by nominally 0.5 (blue line) and 1.0 nm (green line) show a distinct increase in the relative scatter. This demonstrates the high sensitivity of the technique to phase changes in the subnanometer range.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Relative scatter measurements of two typical MMA devices. The range of relative scatter values across the MMA area is shown as vertical lines with whiskers, which represent minimal and maximal values. To guide the eye the centers of these ranges are marked by solid symbols and should not to be confused with the average scatter over the MMA area. Relative scatter curves calculated from the devices’ respective a 1 values according to Eq. (7) are shown as dotted lines.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S rel ( x , y ; d ^ ) = Δ P ( x , y ; d = d ^ ) Δ P ( x , y ; d = 0 ) .
N = C ( N q , λ ) × N q .
N = C N ( N ) C λ ( λ ) N q = C N ( N ) N lin ,
C N ( N ) = N / N lin ,
N i ( d ^ i ) = min k = 1 , , p { N i ( d ( k ) ) } .
( x y ) = T p [ ( r c ) ] = S R ( r c ) + t = ( s x 0 0 s y ) ( cos ϕ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ ) ( r c ) + ( t x t y ) ,
L ( p ) = i = 1 n ( x , y ) i ( x , y ) i p 2 ,
S rel ( d = ( λ 4 , , λ 4 ) ) ( π a 1 λ ) 2 .

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