Abstract

In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication, calibration, and deployment of an airborne multispectral polarimetric imager. The motivation for the development of this instrument was to explore its ability to provide information about water constituents, such as particle size and type. The instrument is based on four 16 MP cameras and uses wire grid polarizers (aligned at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) to provide the separation of the polarization states. A five-position filter wheel provides for four narrow-band spectral filters (435, 550, 625, and 750 nm) and one blocked position for dark-level measurements. When flown, the instrument is mounted on a programmable stage that provides control of the view angles. View angles that range to ±65° from the nadir have been used. Data processing provides a measure of the polarimetric signature as a function of both the view zenith and view azimuth angles. As a validation of our initial results, we compare our measurements, over water, with the output of a Monte Carlo code, both of which show neutral points off the principle plane. The locations of the calculated and measured neutral points are compared. The random error level in the measured degree of linear polarization (8% at 435) is shown to be better than 0.25%.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

K. J. Voss, A. C. R. Gleason, H. R. Gordon, G. W. Kattawar, and Y. You, “Observation of non-principal plane neutral points in the in-water upwelling polarized light field,” Opt. Express 19, 5942–5952 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007).

M. Chami and M. D. Platel, “Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037 (2007).

M. Chami and D. McKee, “Determination of biogeochemical properties of marine particles using above water measurements of the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle,” Opt. Express 15, 9494–9509 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multicomponent approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 400–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Adam, J. T.

Adams, J. T.

Ahmed, S.

Benami, O.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bissett, W. P.

Boss, E.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bowles, J. H.

Bréon, F. M.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Briggs-Whitmire, A.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bubuisson, P.

Bull, M. A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cairns, B.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Capraro, K.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chaikovskaya, L. I.

Chami, M.

H. Loisel, L. Duforet, D. Dessailly, M. Chami, and P. Bubuisson, “Investigation of the variations in the water leaving polarized reflectance from the POLDER satellite data over two biogeochemical contrasted oceanic areas,” Opt. Express 16, 12905–12918 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Chami and D. McKee, “Determination of biogeochemical properties of marine particles using above water measurements of the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle,” Opt. Express 15, 9494–9509 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007).

M. Chami and M. D. Platel, “Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037 (2007).

Chang, G.

G. Chang and A. L. Whitmire, “Effects of bulk particle characteristics on backscatter and optical closure,” Opt. Express 17, 2132–2142 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chenault, D. B.

Chipman, R. A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chowdhary, J.

A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “The relationship between upwelling underwater polarization and attenuation/absorption ratio,” Opt. Express 20, 25662–25680 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Davis, A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. O.

Dessailly, D.

Deuzé, J. L.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dickey, T.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diner, D. J.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Downes, T. V.

Dubovik, O.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ducos, F.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duforet, L.

Dugan, J. P.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fafaul, B. A.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

François, P.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

Garay, M. J.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geier, S.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gilerson, A.

Gleason, A.

Gleason, A. C. R.

Goldstein, D. L.

Goloub, P.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D. J.

Hancock, B. R.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harmel, T.

Hein, J. D.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herman, M.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hooper, B. A.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Jovanovic, V. M.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katsev, I. L.

Kattawar, G.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kim, M.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kohler, D.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kohler, D. D. R.

Leathers, R. A.

Lewis, M.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lifermann, A.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loisel, H.

Louchard, E. M.

Mahoney, K.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martonchik, J. V.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

McClain, S. C.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKee, D.

Mishchenko, M.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M. I.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miskey, C.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C. D.

Moline, M.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Montes, M. J.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Persh, S.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

Philpot, W.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piotrowski, C. C.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Platel, M. D.

M. Chami and M. D. Platel, “Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037 (2007).

Prikhach, A. S.

Rayner, S.

Reid, R. P.

Rheingans, B. E.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaham, Y. J.

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. A.

Sundman, L. K.

Tanré, D.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science Books, 1997).

Tonizzo, A.

Travis, L.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tynes, H. H.

Tyo, J. S.

Van Pelt, B.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

Waquet, F.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Waterman, T. H.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Whitmire, A. L.

Williams, J. Z.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

Yi, M.

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

Young, A. T.

Zege, E. P.

Zhai, P. W.

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, C. O. Davis, J. H. Bowles, T. V. Downes, R. A. Leathers, M. J. Montes, W. P. Bissett, D. D. R. Kohler, R. P. Reid, E. M. Louchard, and A. Gleason, “Interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing imagery by spectrum matching and look-up tables,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3576–3592 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. T. Adam, D. J. Gray, and S. Rayner, “Observation of non-principal plane neutral points in the upwelling polarized light field above a water surface,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5387–5391 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. T. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 1: upwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1976–1986 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multicomponent approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 400–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1037–1047 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. T. Young, “Revised depolarization correction for atmospheric fextinction,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3427–3428 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. (1)

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6, 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res. Part II (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

B. A. Hooper, B. Van Pelt, J. Z. Williams, J. P. Dugan, M. Yi, C. C. Piotrowski, and C. Miskey, “Airborne spectral polarimeter for ocean wave research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32, 805–815 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007).

M. Chami and M. D. Platel, “Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037 (2007).

J. Mar. Res. (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Oceanography (1)

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. Kohler, C. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography 17, 16–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE. (1)

S. Persh, Y. J. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, J. D. Hein, and B. A. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor,” Proc. SPIE. 7807, 780703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science Books, 1997).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

WMO International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics Radiation Commission, “A preliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Shown here are the four cameras (indicated by the X ’s) with the tear drop-shaped filter wheels mounted on a plate, which was then mounted onto the stage. The rotation of the U -shaped yoke moves the FOV in the general “roll” direction while rotating the plate that holds the cameras is similar to changing the pitch direction. The CMIGITS is not shown in this drawing.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The angles that are determined in the camera model are shown. (b) The angles reported by the CMIGITS relative to the NED ( x , y , z ) frame of reference. The view direction is down to the right and off the page, as would be seen from the aircraft looking forward. The roll angle is between the projection (projections shown as red dotted lines) of the view direction onto the y z plane and the positive z axis, the pitch angle is between the projection of the view direction onto the x z plane and the x axis, and the heading angle is between the projection of the view direction onto the x y plane and the x direction.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Aircraft is flown in a straight line with the stage pointing the camera’s FOV forward as the interest area is approached. The stage rotates the system downward and then toward the rear of the aircraft after the interest area has been passed. Multiple lines at different azimuth angles are flown, resulting in more than 100 individual frames of data collected for each color filter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Gray lines show the position of the plane while data was being collected. Not all of the collected data was used during the processing. The camera/stage system tracks the center location at (38.9031°N, 76.4119°W), which is approximately 10 km south of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in Maryland.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Plots show the measured and modeled DOLP for each of the four spectral bands. Here (a) is for 435 nm, (b) 550, (c) 625 nm, and (d) 750 nm. The plots are linear in the DOLP. Note the movement of the center of the NP between the bands.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Showing the View Azimuth (First Number in Cell) and View Zenith (Second Number) Positions of the NPs a

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S 0 = I 0 + I 90 = I 45 + I 135 = 1 2 ( I 0 + I 45 + I 90 + I 135 ) ,
S 1 = I 0 I 90 ,
S 2 = I 45 I 135 ,
DOLP = ( S 1 2 + S 2 2 ) / S 0 ,
AOP = 1 2 tan 1 ( S 2 S 1 ) .
u ^ i j , stage = [ cos ρ i j sin π i j sin ρ i j cos ρ i j cos π i j ] ,
σ 2 = C * signal + σ DL 2 ,
σ DOLP 2 i = 0 , 1 , 2 ( DOLP S i σ i ) 2 ,
σ S 1 2 = σ I 0 2 + σ I 90 2 = σ I 45 2 + σ I 135 2 = σ S 2 2 ,
σ S 0 2 = 1 4 ( σ I 0 2 + σ I 90 2 + σ I 45 2 + σ I 135 2 ) = 1 2 σ S 1 2 = 1 2 σ S 2 2 .
σ DOLP 2 = ( S 1 σ S 1 S 0 S 1 2 + S 2 2 ) 2 + ( S 2 σ S 2 S 0 S 1 2 + S 2 2 ) 2 + ( σ S 0 S 1 2 + S 2 2 S 0 2 ) 2 ,
σ DOLP 2 = ( σ S 1 S 0 ) 2 + 1 2 ( σ S 1 DOLP S 0 ) 2 ,
σ DOLP = σ I 0 2 + σ I 90 2 S 0 ( 1 + DOLP 2 2 ) 1 2 ,
[ u x , i j u y , i j u z , i j ] = R 3 T ( θ 3 + d θ 3 ) R 2 T ( θ 2 + d θ 2 ) R 1 T ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) [ cos ρ i j sin π i j sin ρ i j cos ρ i j cos π i j ] ,
R 1 ( ϑ ) = [ cos ( ϑ ) sin ( ϑ ) 0 sin ( ϑ ) cos ( ϑ ) 0 0 0 1 ] ,
R 2 ( ϑ ) = [ cos ( ϑ ) 0 sin ( ϑ ) 0 1 0 sin ( ϑ ) 0 cos ( ϑ ) ] ,
R 3 ( ϑ ) = [ 1 0 0 0 cos ( ϑ ) sin ( ϑ ) 0 sin ( ϑ ) cos ( ϑ ) ] ,

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