Abstract

Measurements of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at multiple wavelengths in the ocean typically exhibit a power law dependence on wavelength, and the slope of that power law has been related to the slope of the particle size distribution (PSD), when assumed to be a power law function of particle size. Recently, spectral backscattering coefficient measurements have been made using sensors deployed at moored observatories, on autonomous underwater vehicles, and even retrieved from space-based measurements of remote sensing reflectance. It has been suggested that these backscattering measurements may also be used to obtain information about the shape of the PSD. In this work, we directly compared field-measured PSD with multispectral beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in a coastal bottom boundary later. The results of this comparison demonstrated that (1) the beam attenuation spectral slope correlates with the average particle size as suggested by theory for idealized particles and PSD; and (2) measurements of spectral backscattering also contain information reflective of the average particle size in spite of large deviations of the PSD from a spectral power law shape.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

C. S. Roesler and A. H. Barnard, “Optical proxy for phytoplankton biomass in the absence of photophysiology: rethinking the absorption line height,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 79–94 (2014).

2013 (3)

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Woźniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for ac-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 21–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. D’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. L. Estapa, E. Boss, L. M. Mayer, and C. S. Roesler, “Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 97–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

2011 (2)

2010 (6)

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Braithwaite, D. Bowers, W. Nimmo Smith, G. Graham, Y. Agrawal, and O. Mikkelsen, “Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary,” Mar. Geol. 277, 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–12 (2010).

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–19 (2010).

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (10)

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, 1–22 (2009).

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 1671–1678 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16  deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1–21  μm sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17, 8805–8814 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1–11 (2008).

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Anglès, A. Jordi, E. Garcés, M. Masó, and G. Basterretxea, “High-resolution spatio-temporal distribution of a coastal phytoplankton bloom using laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST),” Harmful Algae 7, 808–816 (2008).

L. Stemmann, D. Eloire, A. Sciandra, G. A. Jackson, L. Guidi, M. Picheral, and G. Gorsky, “Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000  μm in the upper 200  m region of the South Pacific Gyre,” Biogeosciences 5, 299–310 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of nonspherical marine-like particles–from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).

A. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. Cowles, and W. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

C. F. Jago, S. E. Jones, P. Sykes, and T. Rippeth, “Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation,” Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 2019–2028 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pedocchi and M. H. García, “Evaluation of the LISST-ST instrument for suspended particle size distribution and settling velocity measurements,” Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 943–958 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1–14 (2006).

O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, and T. G. Milligan, “Single-grain, microfloc and macrofloc volume variations observed with a LISST-100 and a digital floc camera,” J. Sea Res. 55, 87–102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and R. J. Chant, “In situ particle size distributions and volume concentrations from a LISST-100 laser particle sizer and a digital floc camera,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 1959–1978 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

2004 (2)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

G. Voulgaris and S. T. Meyers, “Temporal variability of hydrodynamics, sediment concentration and sediment settling velocity in a tidal creek,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24, 1659–1683 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

D. C. Fugate and C. T. Friedrichs, “Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST,” Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1867–1886 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

2001 (6)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Souza, T. D. Dickey, and G. C. Chang, “Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf during the passages of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” J. Mar. Res. 59, 1021–1045 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Agrawal and H. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168, 89–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, P. Donaghay, and J. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

1995 (2)

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13309–13320 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Risović, “Two-component model of sea particle size distribution,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 40, 1459–1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

K. Kranck and T. Milligan, “Characteristics of suspended particles at an 11-hour anchor station in San Francisco Bay, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11373–11382 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep. Res. Part A 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. F. Bohren and S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1986 (2)

1982 (1)

1980 (2)

S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962–974 (1980).
[Crossref]

P. Diehl and H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a plankton tube experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

1977 (1)

J. E. Harris, “Characterization of suspended matter in the Gulf of Mexico-II particle size analysis of suspended matter from deep water,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 1055–1061 (1977).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, Y.

K. Braithwaite, D. Bowers, W. Nimmo Smith, G. Graham, Y. Agrawal, and O. Mikkelsen, “Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary,” Mar. Geol. 277, 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Agrawal and H. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168, 89–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16  deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1–21  μm sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17, 8805–8814 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1–11 (2008).

Ahn, Y.

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep. Res. Part A 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alldredge, A. L.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1  μm and 1  cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 44, 1739–1767 (1997).
[Crossref]

Anglès, S.

S. Anglès, A. Jordi, E. Garcés, M. Masó, and G. Basterretxea, “High-resolution spatio-temporal distribution of a coastal phytoplankton bloom using laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST),” Harmful Algae 7, 808–816 (2008).

Antoine, D.

Arellano, J.

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
[Crossref]

Asano, S.

Astoreca, R.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Austin, T. C.

T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
[Crossref]

Azevedo, L.

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Bale, A.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

Barnard, A. H.

C. S. Roesler and A. H. Barnard, “Optical proxy for phytoplankton biomass in the absence of photophysiology: rethinking the absorption line height,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 79–94 (2014).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
[Crossref]

Basterretxea, G.

S. Anglès, A. Jordi, E. Garcés, M. Masó, and G. Basterretxea, “High-resolution spatio-temporal distribution of a coastal phytoplankton bloom using laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST),” Harmful Algae 7, 808–816 (2008).

Behrenfeld, M.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berelson, W. M.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5277 (1991).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. D’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. L. Estapa, E. Boss, L. M. Mayer, and C. S. Roesler, “Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 97–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, and C. Russo, “Effects of particle aggregation and disaggregation on their inherent optical properties,” Opt. Express 19, 7945–7959 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of nonspherical marine-like particles–from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).

A. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. Cowles, and W. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boss, E. S.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, D.

K. Braithwaite, D. Bowers, W. Nimmo Smith, G. Graham, Y. Agrawal, and O. Mikkelsen, “Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary,” Mar. Geol. 277, 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, L.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boynton, G. C.

Braithwaite, K.

K. Braithwaite, D. Bowers, W. Nimmo Smith, G. Graham, Y. Agrawal, and O. Mikkelsen, “Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary,” Mar. Geol. 277, 1–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brando, V. E.

Bricaud, A.

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep. Res. Part A 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling,” Appl. Opt. 25, 571–580 (1986).
[Crossref]

Brickley, P.

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
[Crossref]

Briggs, N. T.

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

Brown, I.

Buonassissi, C. J.

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–12 (2010).

Calzado, V. S.

Casamitjana, X.

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cetinic, I.

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

Chami, M.

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Chang, G.

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

Chang, G. C.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Souza, T. D. Dickey, and G. C. Chang, “Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf during the passages of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” J. Mar. Res. 59, 1021–1045 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chant, R. J.

O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and R. J. Chant, “In situ particle size distributions and volume concentrations from a LISST-100 laser particle sizer and a digital floc camera,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 1959–1978 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chase, A.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chase, Z.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Claustre, H.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Clavano, W. R.

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of nonspherical marine-like particles–from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).

Colomer, J.

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
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Costello, D. K.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1  μm and 1  cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 44, 1739–1767 (1997).
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Cowles, T.

Cowles, T. J.

Cristina, X.

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
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Cunningham, A.

D’Andon, O. H. F.

D’Asaro, E. A.

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

Dall’Olmo, G.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
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G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).
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E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dam, H. G.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1  μm and 1  cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 44, 1739–1767 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dana, D. R.

Devred, E.

Dickey, T.

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
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A. J. Souza, T. D. Dickey, and G. C. Chang, “Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf during the passages of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” J. Mar. Res. 59, 1021–1045 (2001).
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P. Diehl and H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a plankton tube experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Dierssen, H. M.

C. J. Buonassissi and H. M. Dierssen, “A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–12 (2010).

Donaghay, P.

M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, P. Donaghay, and J. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
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Dowell, M.

Doxaran, D.

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S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater lighting by submerged lasers and incandescent sources,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 1971).

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T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
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Eloire, D.

L. Stemmann, D. Eloire, A. Sciandra, G. A. Jackson, L. Guidi, M. Picheral, and G. Gorsky, “Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000  μm in the upper 200  m region of the South Pacific Gyre,” Biogeosciences 5, 299–310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Emerson, S. R.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Estapa, M. L.

M. L. Estapa, E. Boss, L. M. Mayer, and C. S. Roesler, “Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 97–112 (2012).
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Feldman, G. C.

Ferri, F.

Franz, B. A.

Freeman, S. A.

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

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D. C. Fugate and C. T. Friedrichs, “Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST,” Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1867–1886 (2002).
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D. C. Fugate and C. T. Friedrichs, “Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST,” Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1867–1886 (2002).
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Garcés, E.

S. Anglès, A. Jordi, E. Garcés, M. Masó, and G. Basterretxea, “High-resolution spatio-temporal distribution of a coastal phytoplankton bloom using laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST),” Harmful Algae 7, 808–816 (2008).

García, M. H.

F. Pedocchi and M. H. García, “Evaluation of the LISST-ST instrument for suspended particle size distribution and settling velocity measurements,” Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 943–958 (2006).
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Gardner, W. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, S.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Glenn, S.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

Gordon, H. R.

Gorsky, G.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Stemmann, D. Eloire, A. Sciandra, G. A. Jackson, L. Guidi, M. Picheral, and G. Gorsky, “Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000  μm in the upper 200  m region of the South Pacific Gyre,” Biogeosciences 5, 299–310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Graham, G.

K. Braithwaite, D. Bowers, W. Nimmo Smith, G. Graham, Y. Agrawal, and O. Mikkelsen, “Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary,” Mar. Geol. 277, 1–10 (2010).
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Grant, C. W.

T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
[Crossref]

Green, M.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gruber, N.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guidi, L.

L. Stemmann, D. Eloire, A. Sciandra, G. A. Jackson, L. Guidi, M. Picheral, and G. Gorsky, “Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000  μm in the upper 200  m region of the South Pacific Gyre,” Biogeosciences 5, 299–310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gundersen, K.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haardt, H.

P. Diehl and H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a plankton tube experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Harris, J. E.

J. E. Harris, “Characterization of suspended matter in the Gulf of Mexico-II particle size analysis of suspended matter from deep water,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 1055–1061 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hawley, N.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, M.-X.

Herring, S.

Hill, P.

P. Hill, Dalhousie University (personal communication, 2011).

Hill, P. S.

O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, and T. G. Milligan, “Single-grain, microfloc and macrofloc volume variations observed with a LISST-100 and a digital floc camera,” J. Sea Res. 55, 87–102 (2006).
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O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and R. J. Chant, “In situ particle size distributions and volume concentrations from a LISST-100 laser particle sizer and a digital floc camera,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 1959–1978 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hirata, T.

Howarth, M.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hurst, S. K.

T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
[Crossref]

Irish, J. D.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jackson, G. A.

L. Stemmann, D. Eloire, A. Sciandra, G. A. Jackson, L. Guidi, M. Picheral, and G. Gorsky, “Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000  μm in the upper 200  m region of the South Pacific Gyre,” Biogeosciences 5, 299–310 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1  μm and 1  cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 44, 1739–1767 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jago, C.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jago, C. F.

C. F. Jago, S. E. Jones, P. Sykes, and T. Rippeth, “Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation,” Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 2019–2028 (2006).
[Crossref]

Janzen, C.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johengen, T.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. S.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jones, C.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jones, S.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jones, S. E.

C. F. Jago, S. E. Jones, P. Sykes, and T. Rippeth, “Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation,” Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 2019–2028 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jordi, A.

S. Anglès, A. Jordi, E. Garcés, M. Masó, and G. Basterretxea, “High-resolution spatio-temporal distribution of a coastal phytoplankton bloom using laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST),” Harmful Algae 7, 808–816 (2008).

Kallin, E.

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

Karp-Boss, L.

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
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L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 396–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of nonspherical marine-like particles–from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 45, 1–38 (2007).

Karsenti, E.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kerfoot, J.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13309–13320 (1995).
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J. C. Kitchen, J. R. Zaneveld, and H. Pak, “Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3913–3918 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kohut, J.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Körtzinger, A.

K. S. Johnson, W. M. Berelson, E. S. Boss, Z. Chase, H. Claustre, S. R. Emerson, N. Gruber, A. Körtzinger, M. J. Perry, and S. C. Riser, “Observing biogeochemical cycles at global scales with profilging floats and gliders: prospects for a global array,” Oceanography 22, 216–225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
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T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, 1–22 (2009).

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K. Kranck and T. Milligan, “Characteristics of suspended particles at an 11-hour anchor station in San Francisco Bay, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11373–11382 (1992).
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K. Kranck and T. G. Milligan, “Grain size in oceanography,” in Principles, Methods and Application of Particle Size Analysis, J. P. M. Syvitski, ed. (Cambridge University, 1991), Chap. 23, pp. 332–345.

Langner, M. R.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Latter, R. J.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S. J.

Lee, C. M.

I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

Lee, M. E. G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

Lee, Z.

Leeuw, T.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M.

Lewis, M. R.

Loftin, J.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Logan, B. E.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1  μm and 1  cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep. Sea Res. Part I 44, 1739–1767 (1997).
[Crossref]

Loisel, H.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. D’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2019–2037 (2013).
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G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
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Tamburri, M.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
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Taylor, L.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 52–62 (2013).
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E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
[Crossref]

Traykovski, P.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M.

X. Zhang, M. Twardowski, and M. Lewis, “Retrieving composition and sizes of oceanic particle subpopulations from the volume scattering function,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1240–1259 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, P. Donaghay, and J. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Sullivan, M. Twardowski, J. Zaneveld, and C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer, 2013), pp. 189–224.

Twardowski, M. S.

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
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Ulloa, O.

Vila, X.

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
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Voulgaris, G.

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Webb, D.

S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
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Weidemann, E.

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

Werdell, P. J.

Westberry, T. K.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
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Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1–11 (2008).

A. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. Cowles, and W. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
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Whitmire, A. L.

Williams, J.

C. Jago, A. Bale, M. Green, M. Howarth, S. Jones, I. McCave, G. Millward, A. Morris, A. Rowden, and J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 343, 475–491 (1993).
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R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–19 (2010).

Wright, V. M.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, V. M. Wright, and S. B. Woźniak, “Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1–19 (2010).

Zaneveld, J.

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
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[Crossref]

J. Sullivan, M. Twardowski, J. Zaneveld, and C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer, 2013), pp. 189–224.

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509–9516 (2001).
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Biogeosciences (4)

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).
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M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
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EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

E. Boss, M. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three years of ocean data from a bio-optical profiling float,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 89, 209–210 (2008).
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Harmful Algae (1)

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T. C. Austin, J. B. Edson, W. R. McGillis, M. Purcell, R. A. Petitt, M. K. McElroy, C. W. Grant, J. Ware, and S. K. Hurst, “A network based telemetry architecture developed for the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27, 228–234 (2002).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).
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M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, P. Donaghay, and J. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
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J. Environ. Eng. (1)

T. Serra, J. Colomer, X. Cristina, X. Vila, J. Arellano, and X. Casamitjana, “Evaluation of laser in situ scattering instrument for measuring concentration of phytoplankton, purple sulfur bacteria, and suspended inorganic sediments in lakes,” J. Environ. Eng. 127, 1023–1030 (2001).
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I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C06028 (2012).

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Y. C. Agrawal, A. Whitmire, O. A. Mikkelsen, and H. C. Pottsmith, “Light scattering by random shaped particles and consequences on measuring suspended sediments by laser diffraction,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1–11 (2008).

G. Chang, T. Dickey, O. Schofield, E. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. Pegau, M. Moline, and S. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1–20 (2002).

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13309–13320 (1995).
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T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, 1–22 (2009).

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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, 1–10 (2004).

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans (1)

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, 1–17 (2005).

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A. J. Souza, T. D. Dickey, and G. C. Chang, “Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf during the passages of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” J. Mar. Res. 59, 1021–1045 (2001).
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M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64, 431–451 (2006).
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J. Sea Res. (1)

O. A. Mikkelsen, P. S. Hill, and T. G. Milligan, “Single-grain, microfloc and macrofloc volume variations observed with a LISST-100 and a digital floc camera,” J. Sea Res. 55, 87–102 (2006).
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Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 124–144 (2012).
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S. Glenn, C. Jones, M. Twardowski, L. Bowers, J. Kerfoot, J. Kohut, D. Webb, and O. Schofield, “Glider observations of sediment resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight fall transition storm,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2180–2196 (2008).
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M. L. Estapa, E. Boss, L. M. Mayer, and C. S. Roesler, “Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57, 97–112 (2012).
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Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (2)

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G. Smith, and M. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7, 803–810 (2009).
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L. Karp-Boss, L. Azevedo, and E. Boss, “LISST-100 measurements of phytoplankton size distribution: evaluation of the effects of cell shape,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 396–406 (2007).
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Y. Agrawal and H. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168, 89–114 (2000).
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P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
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Methods Oceanogr. (3)

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Woźniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for ac-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanogr. 7, 21–39 (2013).
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Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. (1)

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Oceanography (1)

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Opt. Express (9)

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
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J. R. Zaneveld and W. Pegau, “Robust underwater visibility parameter,” Opt. Express 11, 2997–3009 (2003).
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X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 1671–1678 (2009).
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X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 5698–5710 (2009).
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Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16  deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1–21  μm sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17, 8805–8814 (2009).
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W. H. Slade, E. Boss, and C. Russo, “Effects of particle aggregation and disaggregation on their inherent optical properties,” Opt. Express 19, 7945–7959 (2011).
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E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17, 1535–1550 (2009).
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A. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. Cowles, and W. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019–7031 (2007).
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A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18, 15073–15093 (2010).
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Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Time series of OASIS 2007 deployment. (a) Significant wave height derived from ADCP surface velocity spectra; (b) current magnitude at 3.2 m above bottom, derived from ADCP; (c) average particle size, D avg , and (d) beam attenuation, c p g ( 670 ) , from the LISST-100X; (e) spectral slope, γ , derived from the ac-9; (f) particle backscattering, b b p ( λ ) , at λ = 440 , 532, and 660 nm; and (g) spectral slope of backscattering, γ b b . Gaps in b b p ( λ ) and γ b b are either due to saturation of the BB9 backscattering sensor during strong resuspension or corrupted measurements (the instrument output was same as the dark reading) in the 440 nm channel during yearday from 255.25 to 256.5 and from 257 to 258. Spectral slope, γ b b , is shown (red) using a power law fit excluding the 440 and 880 nm channels; these γ b b are biased low compared to the fit with all wavelengths and are not used in the comparison between γ b b and D avg .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Time series of the second OASIS 2009 deployment. Descriptions as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Area particle size distributions for OASIS 2007 and 2009 deployments. Different LISST-100X instruments (Type-B and -C) with different size ranges were deployed in 2007 and 2009. Full instrument size spectra are shown in broken yellow, and the common size range used in the calculation of D avg is shown in solid red. The PSDs were calculated using the manufacturer-provided nonspherical particle inversion.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Time series of particle composition proxies for the OASIS 2009 deployment shown in Fig. 2. (a) Chlorophyll concentration derived using the absorption line height in Eq. (10). (b) Particle backscattering ratio at λ = 440 , 532, and 660 nm. Points corresponding to characteristic cases (see text and Fig. 5) are shown in (a) as superimposed symbols: red circle, resuspension-dominated; yellow square, less energetic with low chlorophyll; blue diamond, less energetic with higher chlorophyll.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Particulate single scattering albedo, ω ¯ p ( λ ) , as a function of wavelength during OASIS 2009. The gray region shows the total range of variability in the dataset, and the symbols show compositional cases selected from the dataset [see Fig. 4(a)]: red circles, resuspension-dominated; yellow squares, less energetic with low chlorophyll; blue diamonds, less energetic with higher chlorophyll.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Time series of particulate backscattering to attenuation ratio, b b p ( 532 ) / c p ( 532 ) , during the OASIS 2007 deployment shown in Fig. 1 used as a proxy for particle composition. (b) Comparison of b b p ( 532 ) / c p ( 532 ) for the OASIS 2007 and 2009 deployments showing similar log-normal-like distribution. A comparison of b b p ( 532 ) / c p ( 532 ) and b b p ( 532 ) / b p ( 532 ) for the OASIS 2009 deployment demonstrates that the two proxies have very similar but offset distributions, as expected for scattering-dominated measurements.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Backscattering spectra for OASIS 2007 and 2009 deployments. Only spectra where there were no saturated channels are shown (and for clarity, only every tenth). In general, spectra exhibit a broad maximum in the blue–green and decrease into the blue and red–NIR. Note different ordinate ranges.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a), (b) Residuals of power law fits to the backscattering spectra shown in Fig. 7. Sharp deviation from a smooth residual is likely an indication of an improper BB9 calibration scale factor. Note different scales in (a) and (b). (c) Sum of absolute residuals as a function of particulate absorption spectral shape ( m from linear fit to a p ( λ ) m λ for λ = [ 412,440,488,510,532 , and 555 ] nm channels; more negative indicates steeper absorption) for the OASIS 2009 dataset.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Attenuation spectral slope as a function of average suspended particle size. (b) Same as above but for an average particle size calculated for particles < 50 μm ( D avg , 50 ). Gray lines are type-2 major axis regressions, and the goodness of fit is expressed as R 2 and the normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD, see text).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Backscattering spectral slope as a function of average suspended particle size. Gray lines are type-2 major axis regressions, and the goodness of fit is expressed as R 2 and the normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD, see text). Error bars represent propagated uncertainty of ± σ in γ b b from the Monte Carlo model.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Particulate scattering spectral slope, γ b , as a function of attenuation spectral slope, γ . (b) Particulate backscattering spectral slope, γ b b , as a function of scattering spectral slope, γ b . Solid and dashed gray lines are the 1:1 and type-2 major axis regressions, respectively. The goodness of fit is expressed as R 2 and the normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD, see text). Error bars represent the propagated uncertainty of ± σ in γ b b from the Monte Carlo model.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Comparison of estimated (colored symbols, solid line) and measured (white symbols, dashed line) backscattering spectra for each of the characteristic compositional cases described in Section 3.B: (i) resuspension dominated, (ii) less energetic with low chlorophyll, and (iii) less energetic with higher chlorophyll. Error bars for each represent the propagated uncertainty of ± σ in b b p ( λ ) from the Monte Carlo model.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Spectral backscattering ratio, B ˜ p ( λ ) , calculated using ac-9 and BB9 measurements for the three characteristic compositions described in Section 3.B: red circles, resuspension-dominated; yellow squares, less energetic with low chlorophyll; blue diamonds, less energetic with higher chlorophyll. The error bars represent uncertainty of ± σ in both b b p ( λ ) and b p ( λ ) from the Monte Carlo model.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters and Uncertainties Used in the Monte Carlo Analysis of Backscattering Uncertaintya

Equations (13)

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N ( D ) D J ,
c p ( λ ) λ γ .
D avg = i A ( D i ) D i i A ( D i ) .
a p ( λ ) = a p , m ( λ ) ( a p , m ( 715 ) a 715 ) ( e c 1 c p ( λ ) a p , m ( λ ) e c 1 c p ( 715 ) a 715 ) ,
β ( λ , 124 ° ) = s ( λ ) [ raw ( λ ) d ( λ ) ] K ( λ ) ,
K ( λ ) = exp ( L a p g ( λ ) ) ,
K ( λ ) = ρ 1 ( λ ) c p g , LISST ( 670 ) + ρ 0 ( λ ) .
b b p ( λ ) = 2 π χ p ( 124 ° ) [ β ( λ , 124 ° ) β sw ( λ , 124 ° ) ] ,
ω ¯ p ( λ ) = b p ( λ ) c p ( λ ) = b p ( λ ) a p ( λ ) + b p ( λ ) ,
CHL LH = 1 0.0104 ( a p ( 676 ) a BL ( 676 ) ) [ mg m 3 ] ,
% Err ( λ ) = | c ^ p ( λ ) c p ( λ ) | c p ( λ ) ,
NRMSD = ( 1 N k = 1 N ( y ^ k y k ) 2 ) 1 2 max ( y ) min ( y ) ,
b ^ b p ( λ ) = B ˜ p b p ( λ ) = B ˜ p ω ¯ p ( λ ) c p ( λ ) .

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