Abstract

We demonstrate three amplitude cloaks that can hide very large spatial objects over the entire visible spectrum using only passive, off-the-shelf optics. The cloaked region for all of the devices exceeds 106mm3, with the largest exceeding 108mm3. Although unidirectional, these cloaks can hide the cloaked object, even if the object is transversely illuminated or self-illuminated. Due to the small usable solid angle, but simple scaling, these cloaks may be of value in hiding small field-of-view objects such as mid- to high-earth orbit satellites from earth-based observation. Active phase front manipulation can also make these cloaks invisible to some forms of image homodyning.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Two-dimensional metamaterial structure exhibiting reduced visibility at 500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1342–1344 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
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  19. “Mirrors Tricks of Magic Shows at the Science and Technology Museum MadaTech—12,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hF8xuPShsM .
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12, 25–28 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and T. Tyc, “Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking,” Science 323, 110–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Two-dimensional metamaterial structure exhibiting reduced visibility at 500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1342–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Wolf and T. Habashy, “Invisible bodies and uniqueness of the inverse scattering problem,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 785–792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

R. Fleury, J. Soric, and A. Alu, “Physical bounds on absorption and scattering for cloaked sensors,” arXiv:1309.3619 (2013).

Barbastathis, G.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, A.

A. Boyle, “This ‘Invisibility Cloak’ Could Conceal Satellites or Hide Your Kids,” (NBC News, 2013).

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Farsi, A.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, R.

R. Fleury, J. Soric, and A. Alu, “Physical bounds on absorption and scattering for cloaked sensors,” arXiv:1309.3619 (2013).

Fridman, M.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Habashy, T.

E. Wolf and T. Habashy, “Invisible bodies and uniqueness of the inverse scattering problem,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 785–792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Houdin, R.

R. Houdin, The Secrets of Stage Conjuring (Wildside, 2008).

Howell, J. B.

J. C. Howell and J. B. Howell, “Simple, broadband, optical spatial cloaking of very large objects,” Phys. Opt., arXiv:1306.0863 (2013).

Howell, J. C.

J. C. Howell and J. B. Howell, “Simple, broadband, optical spatial cloaking of very large objects,” Phys. Opt., arXiv:1306.0863 (2013).

Hung, Y. J.

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12, 25–28 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt and T. Tyc, “Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking,” Science 323, 110–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12, 25–28 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Two-dimensional metamaterial structure exhibiting reduced visibility at 500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1342–1344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninova, V. N.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soric, J.

R. Fleury, J. Soric, and A. Alu, “Physical bounds on absorption and scattering for cloaked sensors,” arXiv:1309.3619 (2013).

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tyc, T.

U. Leonhardt and T. Tyc, “Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking,” Science 323, 110–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf and T. Habashy, “Invisible bodies and uniqueness of the inverse scattering problem,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 785–792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, B.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Wolf and T. Habashy, “Invisible bodies and uniqueness of the inverse scattering problem,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 785–792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2652 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (4)

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12, 25–28 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and T. Tyc, “Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking,” Science 323, 110–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. Fleury, J. Soric, and A. Alu, “Physical bounds on absorption and scattering for cloaked sensors,” arXiv:1309.3619 (2013).

R. Houdin, The Secrets of Stage Conjuring (Wildside, 2008).

“Invisibility,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwgIr06OJLo .

“Mirrors Tricks of Magic Shows at the Science and Technology Museum MadaTech—12,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hF8xuPShsM .

J. C. Howell and J. B. Howell, “Simple, broadband, optical spatial cloaking of very large objects,” Phys. Opt., arXiv:1306.0863 (2013).

“Human-scale invisibility cloak unveiled,” MIT Technology Review (June6, 2013).

A. Boyle, “This ‘Invisibility Cloak’ Could Conceal Satellites or Hide Your Kids,” (NBC News, 2013).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cloaking device based on Snell’s law. Two L-shaped water-filled tanks bend light around a cloaking region. (a) Rays parallel to the optical axis: at the first interface, light bends away from the optical axis due to the interface with water. The light then bends back in the same direction at the second interface. The second tank brings the light back with both the same direction and no transverse displacement. (b) CODE V simulation of ray fans (solid/red arrows) displaced from the optical axis. Dashed lines indicate where the rays would go without the device. The final rays have the same angles. However, the rays not parallel to the axis are displaced, resulting in a shift in the perceived object position.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distance d between an unaltered ray and the path of the ray after exiting the water can be found from Snell’s law and the width of the tank L.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Aerial view of the first cloaking device. A helicopter is shown inside the cloaking region of the first device. A truck is shown on the other side of the viewing region. The truck will appear in the helicopter’s place when water is inside the tanks and viewed along the optical axis.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Below the water line, the helicopter is cloaked and the truck appears in its place. The light coming from the truck passes around the helicopter via the water tanks and is then seen in place of the helicopter. Above the waterline, the helicopter is shown in front of the truck.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental cloaking schematic of the second device. Converging and diverging lenses are used to map light around the cloaking region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Alternative schematic for the second device. Four Fresnel lenses in series are used. Two sets of Fresnel lenses with each set separated by twice the focal length make it so the image is not inverted. The distance between lens pairs can be arbitrarily small. In the actual experiment, they were mounted together as if they were a single lens. (a) On-axis marginal rays for an object at infinity. (b) CODE V simulation of the same rays as in the actual experiment. The object was placed 750 mm from the first Fresnel lens. The figure is not to scale for ease of viewing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Setup for the second cloaking device. The tail of a helicopter is at the focus of a Fresnel lens (light passes around it). Four Fresnel lenses (the two in the middle are in contact) allow for a one-to-one noninverted imaging of the background. The lenses have the dimensions of 175mm×250mm and have a focal length of 200 mm. The truck is placed a distance of 750 mm from the last lens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Viewing along the optical axis, we see the truck appearing in the place of the tail of the helicopter. The observation was done with a 21× magnification camera at 6.4 m from the first lens.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Schematic for the third device. Mirrors reflect light around the cloaking region. (a) On-axis marginal rays for an object at infinity. (b) CODE V simulation of the same marginal rays for an object about 1.5 m from the mirrors. The angles of the rays do not change, but the object will appear to be farther away than its actual location.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Setup for the third device. Two sets of right angle mirrors guide light around the cloaked region.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Chair is cloaked, and a rubbish can appears in its place.

Equations (1)

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d=xsin(θaarcsin(nw1sin(θa)))cos(arcsin(nw1sin(θa))).

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