Abstract

Blind source separation (BSS) is implemented for optical fiber sensing systems, such as the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system and the single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber (SMS) sensing system. The FastICA, a kind of multichannel BSS algorithm, is used to get the strain and the temperature with two FBGs. For the SMS sensing, a single-channel blind source separation (SCBSS) algorithm is employed to simultaneously measure the vibration and the temperature variation with only one SMS sensor. The errors of both the FBG and the SMS optical fiber sensing system are very small with the BSS algorithm. The implementation of BSS for the optical fiber sensing makes the multiparameter measurements more easily with low cost and high accuracy and can also be applied for signal de-noising field.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Hu and D. Wang, “Monaural speech segregation based on pitch tracking and amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15, 1135–1150 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, “Discrimination of temperature and strain with a single FBG based on the birefringence effect,” Opt. Express 12, 724–729 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Zhu, H. Mei, and T. Zhu, “Dual-wavelength FBG inscribed by femtosecond laser for simultaneous measurement of high temperature and strain,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 675–678 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, Q. Li, and Y. Xu, “Research on temperature sensing characteristics based on modular interference of single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber,” Chin. J. Lasers 40, 198–203 (2013).

2012 (2)

F. A. Egorov and V. T. Potapov, “Optical fiber vibration measuring transducers based on irregular multimode fibers,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 38, 527–530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Rong, X. Qiao, and T. Guo, “Temperature-calibrated fiber-optic refractometer based on a compact FBG-SMS structure,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 030604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, and A. M. Hatta, “Single-mode—multimode–single-mode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2181–2185 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, A. M. Hatta, and P. Wang, “Use of a bent single SMS fiber structure for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2004 (2)

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, “Discrimination of temperature and strain with a single FBG based on the birefringence effect,” Opt. Express 12, 724–729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Hu and D. Wang, “Monaural speech segregation based on pitch tracking and amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15, 1135–1150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Brown, “A multipitch tracking algorithm for noisy speech,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 11, 229–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Networks 13, 411–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

M. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Brown, “A multipitch tracking algorithm for noisy speech,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 11, 229–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, F. A.

F. A. Egorov and V. T. Potapov, “Optical fiber vibration measuring transducers based on irregular multimode fibers,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 38, 527–530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Erkki, O.

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Networks 13, 411–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

Han, W. T.

Hatta, A. M.

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, and A. M. Hatta, “Single-mode—multimode–single-mode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2181–2185 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, A. M. Hatta, and P. Wang, “Use of a bent single SMS fiber structure for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

G. Hu and D. Wang, “Monaural speech segregation based on pitch tracking and amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15, 1135–1150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, Q. Li, and Y. Xu, “Research on temperature sensing characteristics based on modular interference of single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber,” Chin. J. Lasers 40, 198–203 (2013).

Hyvärinen, A.

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Networks 13, 411–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. J. Lee, and S. K. Yoo, “Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2004), pp. 224–226.

Lee, K. J.

J. Lee, K. J. Lee, and S. K. Yoo, “Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2004), pp. 224–226.

Li, Q.

Z. Huang, Q. Li, and Y. Xu, “Research on temperature sensing characteristics based on modular interference of single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber,” Chin. J. Lasers 40, 198–203 (2013).

Mei, H.

Oh, S. T.

Paek, U. C.

Potapov, V. T.

F. A. Egorov and V. T. Potapov, “Optical fiber vibration measuring transducers based on irregular multimode fibers,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 38, 527–530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proudler, I. K.

E. S. Warner and I. K. Proudler, “Single-channel blind signal separation of filtered MPSK signals,” in Proceedings of IEE on Radar, Sonar and Navigation (IEE, 2003), pp. 396–402.

Qiao, X.

Rong, Q.

Semenova, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, and A. M. Hatta, “Single-mode—multimode–single-mode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2181–2185 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. M.

Varshney, R. K.

Wang, D.

G. Hu and D. Wang, “Monaural speech segregation based on pitch tracking and amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15, 1135–1150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Brown, “A multipitch tracking algorithm for noisy speech,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 11, 229–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Q. Wu, A. M. Hatta, and P. Wang, “Use of a bent single SMS fiber structure for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warner, E. S.

E. S. Warner and I. K. Proudler, “Single-channel blind signal separation of filtered MPSK signals,” in Proceedings of IEE on Radar, Sonar and Navigation (IEE, 2003), pp. 396–402.

Wu, M.

M. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Brown, “A multipitch tracking algorithm for noisy speech,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 11, 229–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, A. M. Hatta, and P. Wang, “Use of a bent single SMS fiber structure for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, and A. M. Hatta, “Single-mode—multimode–single-mode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2181–2185 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Z. Huang, Q. Li, and Y. Xu, “Research on temperature sensing characteristics based on modular interference of single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber,” Chin. J. Lasers 40, 198–203 (2013).

Yoo, S. K.

J. Lee, K. J. Lee, and S. K. Yoo, “Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2004), pp. 224–226.

Zhang, J.

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, H. Mei, and T. Zhu, “Dual-wavelength FBG inscribed by femtosecond laser for simultaneous measurement of high temperature and strain,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

Z. Huang, Q. Li, and Y. Xu, “Research on temperature sensing characteristics based on modular interference of single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber,” Chin. J. Lasers 40, 198–203 (2013).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Q. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Micro-fiber based FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of vibration and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1751–1753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, A. M. Hatta, and P. Wang, “Use of a bent single SMS fiber structure for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. (1)

G. Hu and D. Wang, “Monaural speech segregation based on pitch tracking and amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15, 1135–1150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. (1)

M. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Brown, “A multipitch tracking algorithm for noisy speech,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 11, 229–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, and A. M. Hatta, “Single-mode—multimode–single-mode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2181–2185 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neural Comput. (1)

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 9, 1483–1492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neural Networks (1)

A. Hyvärinen and O. Erkki, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Networks 13, 411–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. A. Egorov and V. T. Potapov, “Optical fiber vibration measuring transducers based on irregular multimode fibers,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 38, 527–530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. S. Warner and I. K. Proudler, “Single-channel blind signal separation of filtered MPSK signals,” in Proceedings of IEE on Radar, Sonar and Navigation (IEE, 2003), pp. 396–402.

J. Lee, K. J. Lee, and S. K. Yoo, “Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2004), pp. 224–226.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup of the FBG sensing system for measurement of strain and temperature.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Wavelength of FBG1; (b) wavelength of FBG2; (c) the separated signals of strain; (d) the separated signals of temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between the separated strain signal and the reference strain signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SMS fiber structure and the speckle pattern.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic diagram for simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature using one SMS structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temperature calibration by linear cooling.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Flow chart of the implementation of SCBSS for SMS sensing system.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) The single-channel acquisition data with the mixed signal of vibration and temperature linear cooling. (b) and (c) The centered signals of x1(t), x2(t). (d) and (e) The whitened signals of the centered signals. (f) and (g) The separated signal of temperature after filtering and vibration. (h) and (i) The temperature variation curve and vibration signal spectrogram.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x(t)=As(t),
y(t)=Wx(t)=WAs(t),
x˜i(t)=xi(t)1Nt=1Nxi(t),(t=1,2,,n.).
v(t)=Px˜(t),P=D12FT,
w+=E[xg(wTx)]E[g(wTx)]w,
w*=w+w+,
w(m+1)=E[vg(wT(m)v)]E[g(wT(m)v)]w(m).
w(m+1)=w(m+1)WWTw(m+1).
w(m+1)=w(m+1)w(m+1).
yi(t)=si(t)=w(m+1)v,
λB=2neffΛ,
ΔλB/λB=(1Pei)εz+(α+γ)ΔT,
P=i=01S|E⃗i|2ds+2SE⃗0E⃗1dscos(Δφ1)A+Bcos(Δφ1),

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