Abstract

We demonstrate an application of a liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) for the parallel generation of optically smooth structured surfaces on Borofloat 33 glass. In this work, the picosecond laser beam intensity profile of wavelength 515 nm is spatially altered by a LC-SLM, and then delivered to the workpiece in order to generate surface deformations whose shape corresponds to the image generated by the LC display. To ensure that localized melting occurs without ablation, the glass surface is covered by a thin layer of graphite prior to laser treatment to provide increased linear absorption of the laser light. After laser treatment the residual graphite layer is removed using methanol and the whole sample is annealed for 1 h at a temperature of 560 °C, making the laser-induced surface deformations optically smooth.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).
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  3. Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Silvennoinen, J. Kaakkunen, K. Paivasaari, and P. Vahimaa, “Parallel femtosecond laser ablation with individually controlled intensity,” Opt. Express 22, 2603–2608 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Wlodarczyk, I. J. Thomson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “Generation of microstripe cylindrical and toroidal mirrors by localized laser evaporation of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6352–6360 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Mendez Fernandez de Cordoba, “Laser micro-polishing of silica optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2007).
  13. C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.
  14. K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.
  15. W. B. Pietenpol, “Surface tension of molten glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 7, 26–37 (1936).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. L. Schick, “A thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature vaporization properties of silica,” Chem. Rev. 60, 331–362 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Q. Tool, “Relation between inelastic deformability of thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240–253 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. S. Liu and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Iterative algorithm for the design of diffractive phase elements for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1463–1465 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Di Leonardo, F. Ianni, and G. Ruocco, “Computer generation of optimal holograms for optical trap arrays,” Opt. Express 15, 1913–1922 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Hasegawa and Y. Hayasaki, “Second-harmonic optimization of computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2943–2945 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18, 17059–17065 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. P. Parry, R. J. Beck, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to laser marking,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1779–1785 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

J. P. Parry, R. J. Beck, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to laser marking,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1779–1785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hasegawa and Y. Hayasaki, “Second-harmonic optimization of computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2943–2945 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18, 17059–17065 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

1960 (1)

H. L. Schick, “A thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature vaporization properties of silica,” Chem. Rev. 60, 331–362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. D. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

A. Q. Tool, “Relation between inelastic deformability of thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240–253 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

W. B. Pietenpol, “Surface tension of molten glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 7, 26–37 (1936).

Albri, F.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

Ardron, M.

N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).

Baker, H. J.

Bass, M.

Baum, A.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R. J.

Bennett, T. D.

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bryngdahl, O.

Cantwell, W. J.

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Carey, C.

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Cheng, J.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, J. D.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dearden, G.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Di Leonardo, R.

Edwards, K. R.

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Edwardson, S. P.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Fearon, E.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giet, S.

N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).

Hall, D. R.

Hand, D. P.

J. P. Parry, R. J. Beck, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to laser marking,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1779–1785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18, 17059–17065 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
[CrossRef]

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

Hasegawa, S.

Hayasaki, Y.

S. Hasegawa and Y. Hayasaki, “Second-harmonic optimization of computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2943–2945 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ianni, F.

Kaakkunen, J.

Kaakkunen, J. J. J.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Kingery, W. D.

W. D. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Krajnovich, D. J.

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Z.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Iterative algorithm for the design of diffractive phase elements for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1463–1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Maier, R. R. J.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

Matthews, M. J.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mendez Fernandez de Cordoba, E.

E. Mendez Fernandez de Cordoba, “Laser micro-polishing of silica optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2007).

Mullett, J. D.

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Nishida, N.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paivasaari, K.

Parry, J. P.

Perrie, W.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pietenpol, W. B.

W. B. Pietenpol, “Surface tension of molten glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 7, 26–37 (1936).

Ruocco, G.

Schick, H. L.

H. L. Schick, “A thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature vaporization properties of silica,” Chem. Rev. 60, 331–362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Scully, P. J.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, M.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Silvennoinen, M.

Soules, T. F.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolken, J. S.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, T.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Iterative algorithm for the design of diffractive phase elements for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1463–1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takita, A.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, I. J.

Thomson, M.

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tool, A. Q.

A. Q. Tool, “Relation between inelastic deformability of thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240–253 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

M. Silvennoinen, J. Kaakkunen, K. Paivasaari, and P. Vahimaa, “Parallel femtosecond laser ablation with individually controlled intensity,” Opt. Express 22, 2603–2608 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
[CrossRef]

Vignes, R. M.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A.

Waddie, A. J.

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, D.

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, K. G.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Weston, N. J.

R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18, 17059–17065 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

Williams, C. J.

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

Wlodarczyk, K. L.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, I. J. Thomson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “Generation of microstripe cylindrical and toroidal mirrors by localized laser evaporation of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6352–6360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
[CrossRef]

K. L. Wlodarczyk, “Surface deformation mechanisms in laser smoothing and micro-machining of optical glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2011).

Wyrowski, F.

Xiao, Y. M.

Yang, S. T.

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, P. J. Scully, A. Baum, S. P. Edwardson, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High-speed uniform parallel 3D refractive index micro-structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) for volume phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 817–823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, D. Liu, S. P. Edwardson, J. Cheng, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Diffractive multi-beam surface micro-processing using 10  ps laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9040–9044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

H. L. Schick, “A thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature vaporization properties of silica,” Chem. Rev. 60, 331–362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

A. Q. Tool, “Relation between inelastic deformability of thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240–253 (1946).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. B. Pietenpol, “Surface tension of molten glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 7, 26–37 (1936).

T. D. Bennett, D. J. Krajnovich, L. Li, and D. Wan, “Mechanism of topography formation during CO2 laser texturing of silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2897–2905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. S. Liu, M. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design of diffractive optical elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2541–2548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. D. Feit, M. J. Matthews, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. M. Vignes, S. T. Yang, and J. D. Cooke, “Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78420O (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

E. Mendez Fernandez de Cordoba, “Laser micro-polishing of silica optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2007).

C. Carey, W. J. Cantwell, G. Dearden, K. R. Edwards, S. P. Edwardson, J. D. Mullett, C. J. Williams, and K. G. Watkins, “Effects of laser interaction with graphite coatings,” Proceedings of the LANE (2007), pp. 673–686.

K. L. Wlodarczyk, F. Albri, R. R. J. Maier, N. J. Weston, and D. P. Hand, “The impact of graphite coating and wavelength on picosecond laser machining of optical glasses,” presented at the 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, California (2012), paper M309.

N. J. Weston, D. P. Hand, S. Giet, and M. Ardron, “A method of forming an optical device,” patentWO/2012/038707 (29March2012).

K. L. Wlodarczyk, “Surface deformation mechanisms in laser smoothing and micro-machining of optical glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2011).

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, “Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. A (2013), to be published.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Surface deformations produced by a single CO2 laser pulse: (a) crater in fused silica (HPFS 7980, Corning), (b) sombrero-shaped bump in lead-silicate glass (SF57, Schott AG), (c) ring, and (d) dome-shaped bump in borosilicate glass (Borofloat 33, Schott AG). The peak irradiance and pulse duration values used for generating the features are shown in the figure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Grooves produced at the graphite-coated surface of Borofloat 33 glass using nanosecond laser pulses at P=3W and v=10mm/s. The profile was taken when the residual graphite was removed and the sample was annealed at 560°C for 1 h.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D surface profile, cross section (taken along the dashed line), and optical image of a sinusoidal grating produced in graphite-coated Borofloat 33 glass using nanosecond laser pulses. Laser machining conditions were P=0.5W, v=1mm/s, and Δx=25μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ridges generated by a 30 μm diameter laser spot moved along the line track with a speed of 2mm/s, using PRF=400kHz, P=150mW, and λ=515nm: (a) before and (b) after annealing for 1 h at 560°C. The residual graphite layer was removed before measurement. N value stands for a number of laser passes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup used for parallel shaping the glass surface with the LC-SLM.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Four bumps with square-shaped bases that were generated simultaneously by LC-SLM, which was illuminated by a single 13.33 ms train of 6 ps laser pulses at PRF=400kHz and P=3.4W. The surface profile of the bumps was taken (a) before and (b) after annealing the glass at T=560°C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Impact of the laser exposure time on the size of the SLM-generated bumps. An average laser power used was 6.5 W, whereas the laser exposure time was (a) 13.33 ms and (b) 213.28 ms (i.e., 16×13.33ms).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Sinusoidal structure produced at the surface of Borofloat 33 glass by LC-SLM, using a 4×13.33ms laser exposure time and 6.5 W average output laser power: (a) 3D surface profile and (b) cross section of the sinusoidal structure taken along the dashed line shown in (a).

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