Abstract

This paper introduces a methodology for tracking displacements in canvas paintings exposed to relative humidity changes. Displacements are measured by means of the 3D digital image correlation method that is followed by a postprocessing of displacement data, which allows the separation of local displacements from global displacement maps. The applicability of this methodology is tested on measurements of a model painting on canvas with introduced defects causing local inhomogeneity. The method allows the evaluation of conservation methods used for repairing canvas supports.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

2011 (5)

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, “Badania materiałów stosowanych do uzupełniania ubytków zapraw w malowidłach na płótnie [Research on the materials used for reintegration of the injuries of priming in paintings on canvas],” AUNC Zabytkoznawstwo i Konserwatorstwo 38, 187–282 (2010).

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

2009 (3)

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Orteu, “3-D computer vision in experimental mechanics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 282–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. Tornari, “Laser interference-based techniques and applications in structural inspection of works of art,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387, 761–780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

2005 (1)

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Mohan and P. Rastogi, “Recent developments in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 439–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Young and P. Ackroyd, “The mechanical behaviour and environmental response of paintings to three types of lining treatment,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 22, 85–104 (2001).

1999 (1)

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “Biaxial tensile testing of paintings on canvas,” Stud. Conserv. 44, 129–141 (1999).

1996 (1)

J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, and M. A. Sutton, “Improved 3-D image correlation for surface displacement measurement,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, and M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to 3-d deformation analysis in fracture mechanics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. J. Rouba, “Die Leinwandstrukturanalyse und ihre Anwendung für die Gemäldekonservierung [The analysis of canvas structures and its application in paintings conservation],” Restauratorenblätter 13, 79–89 (1992).

1988 (1)

G. Hedley, “Relative humidity and stress strain response of canvas paintings: uniaxial measurements of naturally aged samples,” Stud. Conserv. 33, 133–148 (1988).

1985 (2)

B. J. Rouba, “Płótna jako podobrazia malarskie [Canvases as Painting Supports],” Ochrona Zabytków 1985, 222–244 (1985).

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ackroyd, P.

C. Young and P. Ackroyd, “The mechanical behaviour and environmental response of paintings to three types of lining treatment,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 22, 85–104 (2001).

P. Ackroyd and C. R. T. Young, “Preparation of artist’s canvases: factors that affect adhesion between ground and canvas,” in Preprints of the 12th Triennial Meeting, J. Bridgland and J. Brown, eds. (ICOM Committee for Conservation, James and James, 1999), pp. 265–270.

C. Young, R. Hibberd, and P. Ackroyd, “An investigation into the adhesive bond and transfer of tension in lined canvas paintings,” in Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC, Rio de Janeiro, 2002), pp. 370–378.

Asundi, A.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

Bartosik, M.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Bäschlin, N.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Berger, G. A.

G. A. Berger and W. H. Russell, Conservation of Paintings. Research and Innovations (Archetype, 2000), p. 255.

Bernikola, E.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Bratasz, L.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Carlyle, L.

L. Carlyle and C. R. T. Young, “The mechanical response of flour paste grounds,” in Preparation for Painting, J. Townsend, T. Doherty, G. Heydenreich, and J. Ridge, eds. (Archetype Books, 2008), pp. 123–131.

Carr, J. D.

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, A.

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Chambers, A. R.

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

Chao, Y. J.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, and M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to 3-d deformation analysis in fracture mechanics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T. C.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Colville, J.

J. Colville, W. Kilpatrick, and M. M. Mecklenburg, “A finite element analysis of multi-layered orthotropic membranes with application to oil paintings on fabric,” in Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation. Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress (International Institute for Conservation, 1982), pp. 146–150.

Dokos, L.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dulieu-Barton, J.

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Dulieu-Barton, J. M.

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

Dzierzga, K.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Eastop, D.

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Eastop, D. D.

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eastop, D. E.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

Fankhauser, T.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Góra, M.

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

Hadala, A.

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Hedley, G.

G. Hedley, “Relative humidity and stress strain response of canvas paintings: uniaxial measurements of naturally aged samples,” Stud. Conserv. 33, 133–148 (1988).

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J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, and M. A. Sutton, “Improved 3-D image correlation for surface displacement measurement,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996).
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Hibberd, R.

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “Biaxial tensile testing of paintings on canvas,” Stud. Conserv. 44, 129–141 (1999).

C. Young, R. Hibberd, and P. Ackroyd, “An investigation into the adhesive bond and transfer of tension in lined canvas paintings,” in Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC, Rio de Janeiro, 2002), pp. 370–378.

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “The role of attachments in the degradation and strain distribution of canvas paintings,” in Tradition and innovation: Advances in Conservation, Contributions to the IIC Melbourne Congress, A. Roy and P. Smith, ed. (IIC, 2000), pp. 212–220.

Hibberd, R. D.

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ke, X.-D.

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khennouf, D.

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

Kilpatrick, W.

J. Colville, W. Kilpatrick, and M. M. Mecklenburg, “A finite element analysis of multi-layered orthotropic membranes with application to oil paintings on fabric,” in Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation. Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress (International Institute for Conservation, 1982), pp. 146–150.

Kujawinska, M.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

Kwiatkowska, E. A.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Läuchli, M.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Lekawa-Wyslouch, T.

T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, “Badania materiałów stosowanych do uzupełniania ubytków zapraw w malowidłach na płótnie [Research on the materials used for reintegration of the injuries of priming in paintings on canvas],” AUNC Zabytkoznawstwo i Konserwatorstwo 38, 187–282 (2010).

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Lennard, F.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Lennard, F. J.

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lennard, F. L.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

Lukomski, M.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Luo, P. F.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, and M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to 3-d deformation analysis in fracture mechanics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malesa, M.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

Malowany, K.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

McNeill, S. R.

J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, and M. A. Sutton, “Improved 3-D image correlation for surface displacement measurement,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mecklenburg, M. F.

M. F. Mecklenburg, Meccanismi di cedimento nei dipinti su tela: approcci per lo sviluppo di protocolli di consolidamento. Failure Mechanisms in Canvas Supported Paintings: Approaches for Developing Consolidation Protocol (Il prato, 2007).

M. F. Mecklenburg, “Micro climates and moisture induced damage to paintings,” in Contributions to the Copenhagen Conference Museum Microclimates, T. Padfield and K. Borchersen, eds. (National Museum of Denmark, 2007), pp. 19–25.

Mecklenburg, M. M.

J. Colville, W. Kilpatrick, and M. M. Mecklenburg, “A finite element analysis of multi-layered orthotropic membranes with application to oil paintings on fabric,” in Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation. Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress (International Institute for Conservation, 1982), pp. 146–150.

Michalski, S.

S. Michalski, “Paintings —their response to temperature, RH, shock and vibration,” in Art in Transit: Studies in the Transport of Paintings, M. Mecklenburg, ed. (National Gallery of Art, 1991), pp. 223–248.

Mohan, N. K.

N. K. Mohan and P. Rastogi, “Recent developments in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 439–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orteu, J.-J.

J.-J. Orteu, “3-D computer vision in experimental mechanics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 282–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sutton, J.-J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements. Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Palmbach, C.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Pan, B.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, E.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Peng, G.-D.

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peters, W. H.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phenix, A.

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piekarczuk, A.

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

Qian, K.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, W. F.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P.

N. K. Mohan and P. Rastogi, “Recent developments in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 439–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rouba, B.

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

B. Rouba, Budowa techniczna obrazów XIX-wiecznych malowanych na handlowych podobraziach płóciennych i problematyka ich konserwacji [Technical Structure of 19th c. Paintings on Commercially Prepared Canvas Supports and Issues Concerning Their Conservation] (UMK-rozprawy, 1988).

Rouba, B. J.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rouba, “Die Leinwandstrukturanalyse und ihre Anwendung für die Gemäldekonservierung [The analysis of canvas structures and its application in paintings conservation],” Restauratorenblätter 13, 79–89 (1992).

B. J. Rouba, “Płótna jako podobrazia malarskie [Canvases as Painting Supports],” Ochrona Zabytków 1985, 222–244 (1985).

B. J. Rouba, Podobrazia płócienne w procesie konserwacji [Textile Painting Supports in the Process of Conservation] (Wydawnictwo UMK, 2000).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Russ, J. C.

J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook, 5th ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

Russell, W. H.

G. A. Berger and W. H. Russell, Conservation of Paintings. Research and Innovations (Archetype, 2000), p. 255.

Sahin, M.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, H.

M. Sutton, J.-J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements. Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Schreier, H. W.

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M.

M. Sutton, J.-J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements. Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Sutton, M. A.

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, and M. A. Sutton, “Improved 3-D image correlation for surface displacement measurement,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, and M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to 3-d deformation analysis in fracture mechanics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Szczepinska, K.

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Szkulmowski, M.

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

Szmit-Naud, E.

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Targowski, P.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

Tornari, V.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Tornari, “Laser interference-based techniques and applications in structural inspection of works of art,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387, 761–780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Tsiranidou, E.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

Tyminska, L.

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

Tyminska-Widmer, L.

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

von Reden, A.

A. von Reden, “Uncertainties in the interaction between a canvas painting support and moisture,” in Climate for Collections. Standards and Uncertainties, Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference, J. Ashley-Smith, A. Burmester, and M. Eibl, eds. (Doerner Institute, 2013), pp. 248–256.

Wang, Y.-Q.

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE, 1996).

Williams, H.

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Wolters, W. J.

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Ye, C.-C.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

Young, C.

C. Young and P. Ackroyd, “The mechanical behaviour and environmental response of paintings to three types of lining treatment,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 22, 85–104 (2001).

C. Young, “The application of 3D electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for the structural analysis of paintings on canvas,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 108–115.

C. Young, “The mechanical requirements of tear mends,” in Alternatives to Lining, BAPCR & UCIK Conference (Archetype, 2003), pp. 55–58.

C. Young, R. Hibberd, and P. Ackroyd, “An investigation into the adhesive bond and transfer of tension in lined canvas paintings,” in Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC, Rio de Janeiro, 2002), pp. 370–378.

Young, C. R. T.

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “Biaxial tensile testing of paintings on canvas,” Stud. Conserv. 44, 129–141 (1999).

C. R. T. Young, “History of fabric supports,” in Conservation of Easel Paintings, J. Hill Stoner and R. Rushfield, eds. (Routledge, 2012), pp. 116–133, 137–147.

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “The role of attachments in the degradation and strain distribution of canvas paintings,” in Tradition and innovation: Advances in Conservation, Contributions to the IIC Melbourne Congress, A. Roy and P. Smith, ed. (IIC, 2000), pp. 212–220.

L. Carlyle and C. R. T. Young, “The mechanical response of flour paste grounds,” in Preparation for Painting, J. Townsend, T. Doherty, G. Heydenreich, and J. Ridge, eds. (Archetype Books, 2008), pp. 123–131.

P. Ackroyd and C. R. T. Young, “Preparation of artist’s canvases: factors that affect adhesion between ground and canvas,” in Preprints of the 12th Triennial Meeting, J. Bridgland and J. Brown, eds. (ICOM Committee for Conservation, James and James, 1999), pp. 265–270.

Zacharska, M.

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

Zawadzki, W.

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Zhang, C.

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

V. Tornari, “Laser interference-based techniques and applications in structural inspection of works of art,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387, 761–780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

AUNC Zabytkoznawstwo i Konserwatorstwo (1)

T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, “Badania materiałów stosowanych do uzupełniania ubytków zapraw w malowidłach na płótnie [Research on the materials used for reintegration of the injuries of priming in paintings on canvas],” AUNC Zabytkoznawstwo i Konserwatorstwo 38, 187–282 (2010).

Exp. Mech. (4)

Y.-Q. Wang, M. A. Sutton, X.-D. Ke, and H. W. Schreier, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part i: theoretical developments,” Exp. Mech. 51, 405–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-D. Ke, H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and Y.-Q. Wang, “Error propagation in stereo vision: part ii: experimental validation,” Exp. Mech. 51, 423–441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

M. A. Sutton, W. J. Wolters, W. H. Peters, W. F. Ranson, and S. R. McNeill, “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method,” Image Vis. Comput. 1, 133–139 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laser Chem. (1)

P. Targowski, M. Góra, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, B. Rouba, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska, “Optical coherence tomography for tracking canvas deformation,” Laser Chem. 93658, 1–8 (2006), http://www.hindawi.com/archive/2006/093658/abs/ .

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 062001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

National Gallery Technical Bulletin (1)

C. Young and P. Ackroyd, “The mechanical behaviour and environmental response of paintings to three types of lining treatment,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 22, 85–104 (2001).

Ochrona Zabytków (1)

B. J. Rouba, “Płótna jako podobrazia malarskie [Canvases as Painting Supports],” Ochrona Zabytków 1985, 222–244 (1985).

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, and M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to 3-d deformation analysis in fracture mechanics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, and M. A. Sutton, “Improved 3-D image correlation for surface displacement measurement,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

J.-J. Orteu, “3-D computer vision in experimental mechanics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 282–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Mohan and P. Rastogi, “Recent developments in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 439–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Optica Applicata (1)

W. Zawadzki, M. Bartosik, K. Dzierżga, Ł. Bratasz, M. Łukomski, and E. Peacock, “Application of fiber Bragg gratings for strain measurement in historic textiles and paintings on canvas,” Optica Applicata 42, 503–517 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. C. Ye, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. J. Webb, C. Zhang, G.-D. Peng, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. D. Eastop, “Applications of polymer optical fibre grating sensors to condition monitoring of textiles,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75030M (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, C. Palmbach, and N. Bäschlin, “Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840J (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Malesa, K. Malowany, L. Tymińska-Widmer, E. A. Kwiatkowska, M. Kujawińska, B. J. Rouba, and P. Targowski, “Application of digital image correlation (DIC) for tracking deformations of paintings on canvas,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840L (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kujawinska, M. Malesa, K. Malowany, A. Piekarczuk, L. Tymińska-Widmer, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation method: a versatile tool for engineering and art structures investigations,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80119R (2011).

Restauratorenblätter (1)

B. J. Rouba, “Die Leinwandstrukturanalyse und ihre Anwendung für die Gemäldekonservierung [The analysis of canvas structures and its application in paintings conservation],” Restauratorenblätter 13, 79–89 (1992).

Rev. Conserv. (1)

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, L. Dokos, D. Eastop, F. Lennard, A. R. Chambers, and M. Sahin, “Deformation and strain measurement techniques for the inspection of damage in works of art,” Rev. Conserv. 6, 63–73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strain (1)

D. Khennouf, J. M. Dulieu-Barton, A. R. Chambers, F. J. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Assessing the feasibility of monitoring strain in historical tapestries using digital image correlation,” Strain 46, 19–32 (2010).

Stud. Conserv. (3)

G. Hedley, “Relative humidity and stress strain response of canvas paintings: uniaxial measurements of naturally aged samples,” Stud. Conserv. 33, 133–148 (1988).

J. D. Carr, C. R. T. Young, A. Phenix, and R. D. Hibberd, “Development of a physical model of a typical 19th century English canvas painting,” Stud. Conserv. 48, 145–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “Biaxial tensile testing of paintings on canvas,” Stud. Conserv. 44, 129–141 (1999).

Other (27)

C. R. T. Young, “History of fabric supports,” in Conservation of Easel Paintings, J. Hill Stoner and R. Rushfield, eds. (Routledge, 2012), pp. 116–133, 137–147.

S. Michalski, “Paintings —their response to temperature, RH, shock and vibration,” in Art in Transit: Studies in the Transport of Paintings, M. Mecklenburg, ed. (National Gallery of Art, 1991), pp. 223–248.

J. Colville, W. Kilpatrick, and M. M. Mecklenburg, “A finite element analysis of multi-layered orthotropic membranes with application to oil paintings on fabric,” in Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation. Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress (International Institute for Conservation, 1982), pp. 146–150.

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, “The role of attachments in the degradation and strain distribution of canvas paintings,” in Tradition and innovation: Advances in Conservation, Contributions to the IIC Melbourne Congress, A. Roy and P. Smith, ed. (IIC, 2000), pp. 212–220.

A. Hadała and M. Zacharska, Adoration of the Shepherds. Documentation of Conservation-Restoration Treatment, unpublished report on diploma work supervised by B. J. Rouba, E. Szmit-Naud, K. Szczepińska, T. Łękawa-Wysłouch, and L. Tymińska-Widmer, (Department of Conservation and Restoration of Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2009).

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, C.-C. Ye, A. R. Chambers, F. L. Lennard, and D. E. Eastop, “Optical fibre sensors for monitoring damage in historic tapestries,” in SEM XI International Congress on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2008), p. 8.

M. F. Mecklenburg, Meccanismi di cedimento nei dipinti su tela: approcci per lo sviluppo di protocolli di consolidamento. Failure Mechanisms in Canvas Supported Paintings: Approaches for Developing Consolidation Protocol (Il prato, 2007).

B. J. Rouba, Podobrazia płócienne w procesie konserwacji [Textile Painting Supports in the Process of Conservation] (Wydawnictwo UMK, 2000).

M. F. Mecklenburg, “Micro climates and moisture induced damage to paintings,” in Contributions to the Copenhagen Conference Museum Microclimates, T. Padfield and K. Borchersen, eds. (National Museum of Denmark, 2007), pp. 19–25.

A. von Reden, “Uncertainties in the interaction between a canvas painting support and moisture,” in Climate for Collections. Standards and Uncertainties, Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference, J. Ashley-Smith, A. Burmester, and M. Eibl, eds. (Doerner Institute, 2013), pp. 248–256.

L. Carlyle and C. R. T. Young, “The mechanical response of flour paste grounds,” in Preparation for Painting, J. Townsend, T. Doherty, G. Heydenreich, and J. Ridge, eds. (Archetype Books, 2008), pp. 123–131.

B. Rouba, Budowa techniczna obrazów XIX-wiecznych malowanych na handlowych podobraziach płóciennych i problematyka ich konserwacji [Technical Structure of 19th c. Paintings on Commercially Prepared Canvas Supports and Issues Concerning Their Conservation] (UMK-rozprawy, 1988).

P. Ackroyd and C. R. T. Young, “Preparation of artist’s canvases: factors that affect adhesion between ground and canvas,” in Preprints of the 12th Triennial Meeting, J. Bridgland and J. Brown, eds. (ICOM Committee for Conservation, James and James, 1999), pp. 265–270.

E. Tsiranidou, E. Bernikola, V. Tornari, T. Fankhauser, M. Läuchli, N. Bäschlin, and C. Palmbach, “Studying transportation effects on canvas paintings by full field digital holographic techniques,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 67–74.

C. Young, “The mechanical requirements of tear mends,” in Alternatives to Lining, BAPCR & UCIK Conference (Archetype, 2003), pp. 55–58.

C. Young, R. Hibberd, and P. Ackroyd, “An investigation into the adhesive bond and transfer of tension in lined canvas paintings,” in Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC, Rio de Janeiro, 2002), pp. 370–378.

C. Young, “The application of 3D electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for the structural analysis of paintings on canvas,” in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX, D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford, and K. Birkhölzer, eds. (Archetype, 2013), pp. 108–115.

J. M. Dulieu-Barton, D. Khennouf, A. R. Chambers, F. Lennard, and D. Eastop, “Long term condition monitoring of tapestries using image correlation,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010).

F. Lennard, D. Eastop, J. Dulieu-Barton, A. Chambers, D. Khennouf, C. C. Ye, and H. Williams, “Strain monitoring of tapestries: results of a three-year research project,” in Preprints of ICOM-CC 16th Triennial Conference (Critério, 2011), pp. 1–8.

M. Sutton, J.-J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements. Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

L. Tyminska-Widmer, K. Malowany, M. Malesa, B. J. Rouba, M. Kujawińska, and P. Targowski, “Digital image correlation (DIC) as a novel tool for monitoring response of canvas paintings to variations in environmental conditions,” in Book of Abstracts, Indoor Air Quality, 10th International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments “Standards and Guidelines” (UCL Centre for Sustainable Heritage, 2012), p. 110. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/documents/IAQ2012_Book_of_Abstracts_on-line.pdf .

A. I. Idelson, “About the choice of tension for canvas paintings,” CeROArt, 4 | 2009: Les dilemmes de la restauration, Un choix et des valeurs; http://ceroart.revues.org/1269?lang=en#tocto1n2 (2013).

G. A. Berger and W. H. Russell, Conservation of Paintings. Research and Innovations (Archetype, 2000), p. 255.

A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE, 1996).

J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook, 5th ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

www.correlatedsolutions.com .

http://correlatedsolutions.com/support/index.php?_m=knowledgebase&_a=viewarticle&kbarticleid=2 .

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1960 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Multilayer structure of a canvas painting (exemplary cross-section from 20th century painting). The structure includes: a canvas (a), a glue size layer (b), a ground layer (c), oil paint layers of different thicknesses (here with high impastos) (d), and a varnish (e) [photo W. Grzesik].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fragment of 17th century painting with deformation of the surface: (a) unfitting pattern of deep craquelures, cupping, loss, and delamination of ground and paint layer. Conservation treatment revealed in this spot improper and incompatible repair done in the second-half of 19th century and (b) Thick layer of a rigid gesso (visible after removal of overpainting) and (c) unfitted canvas inserts (visible after removal of secondary gesso) [photo. A. Hadała, M. Zacharska [18]].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Specimen used in experiment. (a) Template of the model painting (orange—fillings in canvas, grey—fillings in ground layer, blue—a patch adhered to the reverse of canvas, red—position of cross-sections analyzed in Fig. 7). (b) Face of the specimen during preparation with repaired defects in canvas support. (c) Backside of the specimen with repairs of the canvas visible. (d) Face of specimen with unified ground layer and a random speckle pattern sprayed on the surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D DIC setup with the model painting and orientation of the coordinate system (a) scheme and (b) view.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Shape of reference surface. Displacement maps at maximum (70,0%) RH, (b) U (in x direction), (c) V (in y direction), and (d) W (in z direction); white lines L1 and L2 indicate position of a cross-section analyzed in Fig. 7, also the location of repairs in canvas: 1E, L, 2E, 3E, 4E is marked in white. The sequence of displacements maps and information of RH changes were combined into video animation Media 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Strain maps: (a) εxx and (b) εyy at maximum (70,0%) RH. White lines L1 and L2 indicate position of a cross-section analyzed in Fig. 7, also the location of repairs in canvas: 1E, L, 2E, 3E, 4E is marked in white.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Displacements and strains at points along lines L1 and L2 shown as a function of time, (a) displacements U (in x direction), (b) displacements V (in y direction), (c) displacements W (in z direction), (d) strains εxx (in x direction), and (e) strains εyy (in y direction). Corresponding changes in RH are given for reference, the location of repairs in canvas: 1E, L, 2E, 3E, 4E is marked as black lines.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Scheme of the method for obtaining a local displacement map.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Local displacement map W (in z direction) at maximum (70,0%) RH, with black lines L1 and L2 indicate position of a cross-section analyzed in Fig. 10, also the location of repairs in canvas: 1E, L, 2E, 3E, 4E is marked in black.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Local displacements W (in z direction) along lines L1 and L2 show as a function of time. Corresponding changes in RH are provided for reference, the location of repairs in canvas: 1E, L, 2E, 3E, 4E is marked as black lines.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Materials and Methods Used for Repairs in the Canvas of a Specimen

Tables Icon

Table 2. Qualification of the Influence of Particular Repairs in Canvas Support on Deformation of the Surface of the Painting According to Displacements (U, V, W), Strains (εxx, εyy), and Local Out-of-Plane Displacements (W) (+, Distinct Deformation; −, Neutral Deformation)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εxx=ux+12[(ux)2+(vx)2]εyy=vy+12[(uy)2+(vy)2].

Metrics