Abstract

The optimization problem of an absolute radiometer’s timing parameters is investigated for comparison experiments of Total Solar Irradiance Monitor (TSIM). Comparison experiments were performed to establish the TSIM’s contact with other space radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance (TSI). Since the comparison experiments had to be performed on a tight schedule under the impact of weather conditions, the measurement parameters for the comparison experiments were selected carefully using optimized solutions of timing parameters. The optimized solutions were identified by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on a thermal model of an absolute radiometer. The thermal model includes terms of heat radiation, air conduction, etc. Fitness value function and constraints of GA are constructed using the thermal model. The experimental results indicate that the selected measurement parameters are sufficient to implement accurate calibration of TSI, providing more opportunities for solar observation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Rind, “The sun’s role in climate variations,” Science 296, 673–677 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Willson, “Active cavity radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 810–817 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Willson, “Active cavity radiometer type IV,” Appl. Opt. 18, 179–188 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Brusa and C. Fröhlich, “Absolute radiometers (PMO6) and their experimental characterization,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4173–4180 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kopp and G. Lawrence, “The total irradiance monitor (TIM): instrument design,” Sol. Phys. 230, 91–109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Finsterle, “International Pyrheliometer Comparison IPC-XI—Final Report,” Technical Report, WMO IOM Report No.  (Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)/World Radiation Center (WRC), 2011), 155.
  8. G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang and Y. Wang, “Spaceborne radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance,” Chin. Opt. 5, 555–565 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).
  14. L. Boivin and F. T. McNeely, “Electrically calibrated absolute radiometer suitable for measurement automation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 554–561 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. F. Oulton and C. S. Adjiman, “Global optimization and modeling techniques for planar multilayered dielectric structures,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5910–5922 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Using a validated transmission model for the optimization of bundled fiber optic displacement sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6526–6535 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. P. Poland, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, “Evaluation of fitness parameters used in an iterative approach to aberration correction in optical sectioning microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 47, 731–736 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Kotsidas, E. Chatzi, and V. Modi, “Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5183–5191 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

H. Wang and Y. Wang, “Spaceborne radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance,” Chin. Opt. 5, 555–565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Using a validated transmission model for the optimization of bundled fiber optic displacement sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6526–6535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

R. F. Oulton and C. S. Adjiman, “Global optimization and modeling techniques for planar multilayered dielectric structures,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5910–5922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Kopp and G. Lawrence, “The total irradiance monitor (TIM): instrument design,” Sol. Phys. 230, 91–109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Rind, “The sun’s role in climate variations,” Science 296, 673–677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986

1979

1973

Adjiman, C. S.

Blattner, P.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Brusa, R. W.

Buisson, F.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chatzi, E.

Dewitte, S.

G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Egorova, T.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).

Fehlmann, A.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Finsterle, W.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Finsterle, “International Pyrheliometer Comparison IPC-XI—Final Report,” Technical Report, WMO IOM Report No.  (Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)/World Radiation Center (WRC), 2011), 155.

Fox, N.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Brusa and C. Fröhlich, “Absolute radiometers (PMO6) and their experimental characterization,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4173–4180 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

Gröbner, J.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heuerman, K.

G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hülsen, G.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koller, S.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, G.

G. Kopp and G. Lawrence, “The total irradiance monitor (TIM): instrument design,” Sol. Phys. 230, 91–109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kotsidas, P.

Lawrence, G.

G. Kopp and G. Lawrence, “The total irradiance monitor (TIM): instrument design,” Sol. Phys. 230, 91–109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, N.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNeely, F. T.

Meftah, M.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meindl, P.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meisonnier, M.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Modi, V.

Moro, E. A.

Nyeki, S.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otanicar, T.

R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

Pfiffner, D.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poland, S. P.

Puckett, A. D.

Rind, D.

D. Rind, “The sun’s role in climate variations,” Science 296, 673–677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, H.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, E.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, G.

G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmutz, W.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spescha, M.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. A.

R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Todd, M. D.

Wang, H.

H. Wang and Y. Wang, “Spaceborne radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance,” Chin. Opt. 5, 555–565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).

Wang, Y.

H. Wang and Y. Wang, “Spaceborne radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance,” Chin. Opt. 5, 555–565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).

Wehrli, C.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werner, L.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willson, R. C.

Winkler, R.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A. J.

Wyss, J. U.

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

G. Thuillier, S. Dewitte, and W. Schmutz, “Simultaneous measurement of the total solar irradiance and solar diameter by the PICARD mission,” Adv. Space Res. 38, 1792–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmidtke, C. Fröhlich, and G. Thuillier, “ISS-SOLAR: total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) irradiance measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 255–264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Opt.

H. Wang and Y. Wang, “Spaceborne radiometers for measuring total solar irradiance,” Chin. Opt. 5, 555–565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

Z. Yang, N. Lu, J. Shi, P. Zhang, C. Dong, and J. Yang, “Overview of FY-3 payload and ground application system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 4846–4853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Light

R. A. Taylor, T. Otanicar, and G. Rosengarten, “Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems,” Light 1, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

W. Schmutz, A. Fehlmann, G. Hülsen, P. Meindl, R. Winkler, G. Thuillier, P. Blattner, F. Buisson, T. Egorova, W. Finsterle, N. Fox, J. Gröbner, J. Hochedez, S. Koller, M. Meftah, M. Meisonnier, S. Nyeki, D. Pfiffner, H. Roth, E. Rozanov, M. Spescha, C. Wehrli, L. Werner, and J. U. Wyss, “The PREMOS/PICARD instrument calibration,” Metrologia 46, S202–S206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Precision Eng.

H. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Fang, “Intelligent solar tracker with double modes,” Opt. Precision Eng. 19, 1605–1611 (2011, in Chinese).

Science

D. Rind, “The sun’s role in climate variations,” Science 296, 673–677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys.

G. Kopp, K. Heuerman, and G. Lawrence, “The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM): instrument calibration,” Sol. Phys. 230, 111–127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopp and G. Lawrence, “The total irradiance monitor (TIM): instrument design,” Sol. Phys. 230, 91–109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Finsterle, “International Pyrheliometer Comparison IPC-XI—Final Report,” Technical Report, WMO IOM Report No.  (Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)/World Radiation Center (WRC), 2011), 155.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the absolute radiometer SIAR-1a: (1) shutter, (2) apertures for view-limiting, (3) primary aperture, (4) thermocouple ring, (5) reference cavity, (6) primary cavity, (7) motor, and (8) heat sink.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the measurement parameters for a single TSI measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optimization results of SIAR-1a, with data of first experiment given in Table 1. Sampled data of temperature difference Td(t) are shown in (a) with its estimation for comparison. The reconstructed temperature is obtained from Eq. (9) using optimized solutions of the timing parameters. The bounds of the time constant are obtained from approximate time constants as shown in (b). Fitness function values obtained in the search process of the GA are shown in (c). The GA stops when the minimum variation of the fitness function values is 1010.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optimization results of SIAR-2c, with data of first experiment given in Table 1. The experimental data of Td(t) are compared to its estimation constructed using the thermal model of an absolute radiometer and optimized solutions as shown in Table 1. Approximate time constants are presented in (b). Fitness function values by the GA in the search process are shown in (c). The GA stops when the minimum variation of the fitness function values is 1010.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimization results of AR1/TSIM, with data of first experiment given in Table 1. Temperature difference Td(t) of the primary cavity is shown in (a). The estimation of temperature Td(t) is constructed using Eq. (9) and optimized solutions of the timing parameters. The bounds of the time constant are obtained from approximate time constants as shown in (b). Fitness function values by the GA are given in (c). The GA stops when the number of generations is 200.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optimization results of AR2/TSIM, with data of first experiment given in Table 1. Sampled data of temperature difference Td(t) are shown in (a). The estimation of Td(t) is constructed using the thermal model and optimized solutions of the timing parameters. The estimated temperature is indicated by the solid line, denoted as “estimation” in the legend of (a). Approximate time constants in the specific time interval are shown in (b). Fitness function values by the GA are shown in (c). The GA stops when the minimum variation of the fitness function values is 1010.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Samples of temperature Td(t) for SIAR-1a. The temperature data are obtained in TSI measurement in the comparison experiments.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Samples of temperature Td(t) for SIAR-2c. The temperature data are obtained in TSI measurement in the comparison experiments.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Samples of temperature Td(t) for AR1/TSIM. The temperature data are obtained in TSI measurement in the comparison experiments.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Samples of temperature Td(t) for AR2/TSIM. The temperature data are obtained in TSI measurement in the comparison experiments.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimization Results of Timing Parameters for Absolute Radiometers

Tables Icon

Table 2. TSI Measurement Uncertainty due to Measurement Parameters

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=ur2uo2Rh·A·α,
CdTc(t)dt+Tc(t)Th(t)Rc+Prcs+Pac=Pe+Prsc,
PrcsPrsc=02π0ωh(σεTc4πσεTs4π)cosθsinθdθdφ=(σTc4σTs4)sin2ωh,
Pac=Ka(Tc(t)Th(t)),
Td(t)=Tc(t)Th(t).
CdTddt+TdR=P,
P=Pe(σTc4σTs4)sin2ωh,
R=Rc/(1+KaRc).
Td(t)=c1+c2etτ,
τ=CR,
c1=RP.
limtTd(t)=limt(c1+c2etτ)=c1.
r(t)=Td(t)Td()=Td(t)c1.
τa=tn+1tnln[Td(tn)Td(N)Td(tn+1)Td(N)].
f=m=1Mn=1N|Td(tmn)(c1+c2etmnτ)|.
c1+c2=Td(t0),
tc=120s,
to=120s.
E=f(ur,uo,Rc,A,α)=ur2uo2R·A·α.
u2(E)=(fur)2u2(ur)+(fuo)2u2(uo)=4ur2u2(ur)+uo2u2(uo)Rh2·A2·α2,

Metrics