Abstract

Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60, and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kellerer, “Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5743–5751 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kellerer, N. Gorceix, J. Marino, W. Cao, and P. R. Goode, “Profiles of the daytime atmospheric turbulence above Big Bear solar observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dong, D. Ren, and X. Zhang, “Numerical analysis of modal tomography for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 465–471 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 2–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

T. Berkefeld and D. Soltau, “EST adaptive optics performance estimations,” Astron. Nachr. 331, 640–643 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. B. Scharmer and T. I. M. van Werkhoven, “S-DIMM+ height characterization of day-time seeing using solar granulation,” Astron. Astrophys. 513, A25 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Cauzzi, K. P. Reardon, H. Uitenbroek, F. Cavallini, A. Falchi, R. Falciani, K. Janssen, T. Rimmele, A. Vecchio, and F. Wöger, “The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. I. New insights from the Ca II 854.2  nm line,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 515–526 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (7)

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835–845 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Tokovinin and T. Travouillon, “Model of optical turbulence profile at Cerro Pachón,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365, 1235–1242 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J. L. Beuzit, “Optimization of star-oriented and layer-oriented wavefront sensing concepts for ground layer adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2233–2245 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng, M. D. Ding, and J. P. Li, “Diagnostics of the heating processes in solar flares using chromospheric spectral lines,” Astrophys. J. 653, 733–738 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Linear systems modeling of adaptive optics in the spatial-frequency domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 310–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront reconstruction algorithms and simulation results for multiconjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 478–489 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Adaptive optics without borders: performance evaluation in the infinite aperture limit,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 625–636 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. T. Gavel, “Tomography for multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems using laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1356–1373 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Femenía and N. Devaney, “Optimization with numerical simulations of the conjugate altitudes of deformable mirrors in an MCAO system,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 1165–1176 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Lloyd-Hart and N. M. Milton, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics for a new generation of giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 18–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wave-front reconstruction on giant telescope,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811–4818 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. Socas-Navarro and J. Sánchez Almeida, “Magnetic properties of photospheric regions with very low magnetic flux,” Astrophys. J. 565, 1323–1334 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 103–108 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Tokovinin and E. J. Viard, “Limiting precision of tomographic phase estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A18, 873–882 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Fusco, J. M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Tokovinin and E. Viard, “Limiting precision of tomographic phase estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 873–882 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. Tokovinin and M. Le Louarn, “Isoplanatism in a multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1819–1827 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100  m class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53–L56 (1999).

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, “Phase estimation for large field of view: application to multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3763, 125–133 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Lin and T. Rimmele, “The granular magnetic fields of the quiet sun,” Astrophys. J. 514, 448–455 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

U. Grossmann-Doerth, C. U. Keller, and M. Schüssler, “Observations of the quiet Sun magnetic field,” Astron. Astrophys., 315, 610–617 (1996).

R. K. Tyson, “Adaptive optics and ground-to-space laser communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3640–3646 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Ramsauer, S. K. Solanki, and E. Biémont, “Interesting lines in the infrared solar spectrum. II. Unblended lines between λ 1.0 and λ 1.8  um,” A&AS 113, 71–89 (1995).

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

E. J. Seykora, “Solar scintillation and the monitoring of solar seeing,” Sol. Phys. 145, 389–397 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beckers, “On the relation between scintillation and seeing observations of extended objects,” Sol. Phys. 145, 399–402 (1993).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Amans, J.-P.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andersen, D. R.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
[Crossref]

Araya, C.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Arriagada, G.

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G. Cauzzi, K. P. Reardon, H. Uitenbroek, F. Cavallini, A. Falchi, R. Falciani, K. Janssen, T. Rimmele, A. Vecchio, and F. Wöger, “The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. I. New insights from the Ca II 854.2  nm line,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 515–526 (2008).
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Farinato, J.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
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R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100  m class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
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Fedrigo, E.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
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Fusco, T.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J. L. Beuzit, “Optimization of star-oriented and layer-oriented wavefront sensing concepts for ground layer adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2233–2245 (2006).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, “Phase estimation for large field of view: application to multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3763, 125–133 (1999).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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D. T. Gavel, “Tomography for multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems using laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1356–1373 (2004).
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T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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Gilles, L.

Goode, P. R.

A. Kellerer, N. Gorceix, J. Marino, W. Cao, and P. R. Goode, “Profiles of the daytime atmospheric turbulence above Big Bear solar observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2 (2012).
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Goodwin, M.

Gorceix, N.

A. Kellerer, N. Gorceix, J. Marino, W. Cao, and P. R. Goode, “Profiles of the daytime atmospheric turbulence above Big Bear solar observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2 (2012).
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Gratadour, D.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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Grossmann-Doerth, U.

U. Grossmann-Doerth, C. U. Keller, and M. Schüssler, “Observations of the quiet Sun magnetic field,” Astron. Astrophys., 315, 610–617 (1996).

Gutierrez, A.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescope (Oxford University, 1998), Chap. 3, p 103.

Hart, M.

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
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Hegwer, S.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
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T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).
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H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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Hill, F.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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F. Hill, R. Radick, and M. Collados, “Deriving Cn2(h) from a scintillometer array, project documentation,” , Revision A (2003), p. 18.

Horst, T.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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Hubin, N.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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Jagourel, P.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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Janssen, K.

G. Cauzzi, K. P. Reardon, H. Uitenbroek, F. Cavallini, A. Falchi, R. Falciani, K. Janssen, T. Rimmele, A. Vecchio, and F. Wöger, “The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. I. New insights from the Ca II 854.2  nm line,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 515–526 (2008).
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Jenkins, C.

Johnston, D. C.

Jolissaint, L.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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Keller, C. U.

U. Grossmann-Doerth, C. U. Keller, and M. Schüssler, “Observations of the quiet Sun magnetic field,” Astron. Astrophys., 315, 610–617 (1996).

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A. Kellerer, “Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5743–5751 (2012).
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A. Kellerer, N. Gorceix, J. Marino, W. Cao, and P. R. Goode, “Profiles of the daytime atmospheric turbulence above Big Bear solar observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2 (2012).
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A. Kellerer, personal communication, 2013.

Khomenko, W. V.

W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
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Kirkman, D.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
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Komsa, M.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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Kuhn, J.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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Kulesa, C.

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
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Lagg, A.

W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
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Lambert, A.

Le Louarn, M.

Lecinski, A.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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Li, R.

D. Ren, R. Li, X. Zhang, J. Dou, Y. Zhu, and G. Zhao, “The first portable solar and stellar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE (submitted).

Lin, H.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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H. Lin and T. Rimmele, “The granular magnetic fields of the quiet sun,” Astrophys. J. 514, 448–455 (1999).
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Lloyd-Hart, M.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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M. Lloyd-Hart and N. M. Milton, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics for a new generation of giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 18–26 (2003).
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Lopez, A.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Luhrs, J.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Marchant, C.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Marchetti, E.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
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R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100  m class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
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R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53–L56 (1999).

Marino, J.

A. Kellerer, N. Gorceix, J. Marino, W. Cao, and P. R. Goode, “Profiles of the daytime atmospheric turbulence above Big Bear solar observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, A2 (2012).
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T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 2–92 (2011).
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T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
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McCarthy, D.

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
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McGregor, P.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Meimon, S.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Socas-Navarro and J. Sánchez Almeida, “Magnetic properties of photospheric regions with very low magnetic flux,” Astrophys. J. 565, 1323–1334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Solanki, S. K.

W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ramsauer, S. K. Solanki, and E. Biémont, “Interesting lines in the infrared solar spectrum. II. Unblended lines between λ 1.0 and λ 1.8  um,” A&AS 113, 71–89 (1995).

Soltau, D.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Berkefeld and D. Soltau, “EST adaptive optics performance estimations,” Astron. Nachr. 331, 640–643 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stalcup, T.

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stoesz, J.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
[Crossref]

Streander, K.

H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Szeto, K.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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A. Tokovinin and T. Travouillon, “Model of optical turbulence profile at Cerro Pachón,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365, 1235–1242 (2006).
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A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951 (2004).
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A. Tokovinin and E. Viard, “Limiting precision of tomographic phase estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 873–882 (2001).
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A. Tokovinin and E. J. Viard, “Limiting precision of tomographic phase estimation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A18, 873–882 (2001).
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R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8  m class and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).
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E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
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D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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Viard, E.

Viard, E. J.

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Vogel, C. R.

von der Lühe, O.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Waldmann, T.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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Welsh, B. M.

Wilson, R.

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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Wilson, R. W.

A. G. Basden, T. Butterley, R. M. Myers, and R. W. Wilson, “Durham extremely large telescope adaptive optics simulation platform,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1089–1098 (2007).
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T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835–845 (2006).
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R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 103–108 (2002).
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Woeger, F.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
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Wöger, F.

G. Cauzzi, K. P. Reardon, H. Uitenbroek, F. Cavallini, A. Falchi, R. Falciani, K. Janssen, T. Rimmele, A. Vecchio, and F. Wöger, “The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. I. New insights from the Ca II 854.2  nm line,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 515–526 (2008).
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Young, P. J.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, G. Gausach, W. N. Rambold, J. Luhrs, S. Walker, E. R. Carrasco-Damele, M. L. Edwards, P. Pessev, R. L. Galvez, T. B. Vucina, C. Araya, A. Gutierrez, A. W. Ebbers, A. Serio, C. Moreno, C. Urrutia, R. Rogers, R. Rojas, C. Trujillo, B. Miller, D. A. Simons, A. Lopez, V. Montes, H. Diaz, F. Daruich, F. Colazo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, M. C. Doolan, J. van Harmelen, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. Gratadour, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “GeMS: first on-sky results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470I (2012).
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B. Dong, D. Ren, and X. Zhang, “Numerical analysis of modal tomography for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 465–471 (2012).
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D. Ren, R. Li, X. Zhang, J. Dou, Y. Zhu, and G. Zhao, “The first portable solar and stellar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE (submitted).

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Zhu, Y.

D. Ren, R. Li, X. Zhang, J. Dou, Y. Zhu, and G. Zhao, “The first portable solar and stellar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE (submitted).

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J. Ramsauer, S. K. Solanki, and E. Biémont, “Interesting lines in the infrared solar spectrum. II. Unblended lines between λ 1.0 and λ 1.8  um,” A&AS 113, 71–89 (1995).

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Astron. Astrophys. (9)

B. Femenía and N. Devaney, “Optimization with numerical simulations of the conjugate altitudes of deformable mirrors in an MCAO system,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 1165–1176 (2003).
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W. V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S. K. Solanki, A. Lagg, and J. Trujillo-Bueno, “Quiet-Sun inter-network magnetic fields observed in the infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115–1135 (2003).
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E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
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T. Berkefeld and D. Soltau, “EST adaptive optics performance estimations,” Astron. Nachr. 331, 640–643 (2010).
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R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 103–108 (2002).
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T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835–845 (2006).
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A. Tokovinin and T. Travouillon, “Model of optical turbulence profile at Cerro Pachón,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365, 1235–1242 (2006).
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Nature (1)

M. Hart, N. M. Milton, C. Baranec, K. Powell, T. Stalcup, D. McCarthy, C. Kulesa, and E. Bendek, “A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars,” Nature 466, 727–729 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

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T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J.-P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE, 7736, 773601 (2010).
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T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).
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T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
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Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (3)

D. R. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J. P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590 (2006).
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H. Socas-Navarro, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denkere, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, F. Hill, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, T. Rimmele, and K. Streander, “Solar site survey for the advanced technology solar telescope. I. Analysis of the seeing data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 1296–1305 (2005).
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A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951 (2004).
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Res. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

B. Dong, D. Ren, and X. Zhang, “Numerical analysis of modal tomography for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 465–471 (2012).
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Sol. Phys. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Asterism of the four guide stars in the OFOV.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Strehl ratio as a function of DM conjugated height for the 60 OFOV. The best-conjugated height is found to be 1.0 km with 0.1 km sampling steps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Strehl ratios with different OFOVs with DM conjugated on 1.0 km height at 1.25 μm NIR. The solid line with star markers represents the CAO; dotted line, optimized for 30 OFOV; dash dotted line, optimized for 60 OFOV; solid line without marker, optimized for 120 FOV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Strehl ratios with different OFOVs with DM conjugated to 1.0 km height at 1.65 μm NIR. The solid line with star markers represents the CAO; dotted line, optimized for 30 OFOV; dash dotted line, optimized for 60 OFOV; solid line without marker, optimized for 120 OFOV.

Tables (13)

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Table 1. Discrete Seeing Parameter r0(h) at Different Heights Above the Ground, at Average, Good, and Bad Seeing Conditions, Respectively

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Table 2. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 0.55 μm Wavelengtha

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Table 3. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.25 μm Wavelength and Zero Conjugated Heighta

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Table 4. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.25 μm Wavelength and 1000 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 5. Strehl Ratios with Different FOVs at 1.65 μm Wavelength and Zero Conjugated Heighta

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Table 6. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.65 μm Wavelength and 1000 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 7. TAO Gains at the J (without Bracket) and H (in Bracket) Bands

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Table 8. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.25 μm Wavelength and 800 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 9. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.65 μm Wavelength and 800 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 10. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.25 μm Wavelength and 900 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 11. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.65 μm Wavelength and 900 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 12. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.25 μm Wavelength and 1000 m Conjugated Heighta

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Table 13. Strehl Ratios with Different OFOVs at 1.65 μm Wavelength and 1000 m Conjugated Heighta

Equations (8)

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Cn2(h)=CnHV2(h)+ABexp(h/h0),
CnHV2(h)=AHV[2.2×1023(h+z1000)10exp(h+z1000)+1016exp(h+z1500)],
r0=(0.423(2πλ)2(cosϕ)1Cn2(h)dh)3/5,
θ0=0.31(ihi5/3r0(hi)5/3)3/5.
σ2(a)=argmin{xT[WxCaxTWa1Cax]x},
H=(dhCn2(h)h5/3dhCn2(h))3/5,
θ0=0.314(cosϕ)r0/H,
MFiN(σi)2iN(σi)2,

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