Abstract

We have demonstrated the analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguide, which consists of a bus waveguide side-coupled with a series of slot cavities. By finite-difference time-domain simulations, it is found that the resonance wavelength of the slot cavity can be controlled by adjusting the length of the cavity. Moreover, the EIT-like response is strongly dependent on the coupling separation between the corresponding adjacent cavities. Multiple-peak plasmon-induced transparency can be realized by cascading multiple cavities with different lengths and suitable cavity–cavity separations. This ultracompact plasmonic waveguide system may find important applications for multichannel plasmonic filter, nanoscale optical switching, and slow-light devices in highly integrated optical circuits and networks.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (8)

X. Piao, S. Yu, and N. Park, “Control of Fano asymmetry in plasmon induced transparency and its application to plasmonic waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 18994–18999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, H. Lu, and X. Liu, “Dispersionless slow light in MIM waveguide based on a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 20, 20902–20907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. M. Liu, D. Mao, and G. X. Wang, “Plasmonic nanosensor based on Fano resonance in waveguide-coupled resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3780–3782 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui and C. Zeng, “Optical bistability based on an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic waveguide-coupled resonators,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7482–7486 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, H. Lu, X. Liu, and Y. Gong, “Numerical investigation of an all-optical switch in a graded nonlinear plasmonic grating,” Nanotechnology 23, 444009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, H. Lu, and X. Liu, “Trapping of surface plasmon waves in graded grating waveguide system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandran, E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon-polariton resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 085416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, G. Wang, and D. Mao, “Tunable high-channel-count bandpass plasmonic filters based on an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nanotechnology 23, 444003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

H. Lu, X. Liu, Y. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Mao, “Multi-channel plasmonic waveguide filters with disk-shaped nanocavities,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2613–2616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, L. Wang, Y. Gong, and D. Mao, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in nanoplasmonic waveguide with Kerr nonlinear resonator,” Opt. Express 19, 2910–2915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmon-induced transparency with detuned ultracompact Fabry-Perot resonators in integrated plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 19, 3251–3257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, H. Lu, X. M. Liu, D. Mao, and L. N. Duan, “Tunable multi-channel wavelength demultiplexer based on MIM plasmonic nanodisk resonators at telecommunication regime,” Opt. Express 19, 3513–3518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. M. Liu, Y. K. Gong, D. Mao, and L. R. Wang, “Optical bistability in metal–insulator–metal plasmonic Bragg waveguides with Kerr nonlinear defects,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1307–1311 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, D. Mao, Y. Gong, and G. Wang, “Analysis of nanoplasmonic wavelength demultiplexing based on metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1616–1621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, Y. Gong, D. Mao, and L. Wang, “Enhancement of transmission efficiency of nanoplasmonic wavelength demultiplexer based on channel drop filters and reflection nanocavities,” Opt. Express 19, 12885–12890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, D. Mao, Y. Gong, and G. Wang, “Induced transparency in nanoscale plasmonic resonator systems,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3233–3235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

J. Park, K. Y. Kim, I. M. Lee, H. Na, S. Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Trapping light in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 598–623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, and L. Wang, “High-channel-count plasmonic filter with the metal-insulator-metal Fibonacci-sequence gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 285–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Tremblay and Y. Sheng, “Improving imaging performance of a metallic superlens using the long-range surface plasmon polariton mode cutoff technique,” Appl. Opt. 49, A36–A41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Tao, X. G. Huang, and J. H. Zhu, “A wavelength demultiplexing structure based on metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic nano-capillary resonators,” Opt. Express 18, 11111–11116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. M. Liu, D. Mao, L. R. Wang, and Y. K. Gong, “Tunable band-pass plasmonic waveguide filters with nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Express 18, 17922–17927 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 10, 1–6 (2010).

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (11)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J. N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 11, 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis, Z. Yu, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 302–308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P. T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express 17, 12678–12684 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Gong, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, X. H. Li, and X. M. Liu, “Broad-bandgap and low-sidelobe surface plasmon polariton reflector with Bragg-grating-based MIM waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 13727–13736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal–dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3047–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Chremmos, “Magnetic field integral equation analysis of interaction between a surface plasmon polariton and a circular dielectric cavity embedded in the metal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2623–2633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “‘Rainbow’ trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, E. Forsberg, and S. L. He, “Surface plasmon Bragg gratings formed in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Xiao, L. Liu, and M. Qiu, “Resonator channel drop filters in a plasmon-polaritons metal,” Opt. Express 14, 2932–2937 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. Donghyun, “Effect of the azimuthal orientation on the performance of grating-coupled surface-plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3218–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation in nanoscale metal gap waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1992–1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akjouj, A.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J. N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 11, 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

A. Chandran, E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon-polariton resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 085416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

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[CrossRef]

H. Lu, X. Liu, Y. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Mao, “Multi-channel plasmonic waveguide filters with disk-shaped nanocavities,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2613–2616 (2011).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
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Park, N.

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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. B (2)

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[CrossRef]

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of plasmonic waveguide system. w and g are the widths of the metallic slit and gap, respectively. di is the length of cavity i(i=1,2,,N). Li represents the separation between cavities i and i+1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Real part of the effective refractive index of SPP wave with w=50nm. (b) Separations between adjacent cavities at different central wavelengths with most obvious EIT-like response.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission spectrum of MIM waveguide structure for different cavity lengths d with g=10nm and w=50nm. (b) Operating wavelength versus the cavity length d.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectrum with different cavity–cavity separations in dual-cavity-coupled waveguide system with d1=150nm, d2=170nm, g=10nm, and w=50nm. (b) Field distribution of |Hz| at transparency-peak wavelength in dual-cavity-coupled waveguide with L=215nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmission spectrum in the triple-cavity-coupled waveguide system with d1=150nm, d2=170nm, d3=190nm, L1=215nm, L2=235nm, g=10nm, and w=50nm. (b), (c) Field distributions of |Hz| with incident wavelengths of 617 and 670 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmission spectrum for the four-cavity-coupled waveguide system with d1=150nm, d2=170nm, d3=190nm, d4=215nm, L1=215nm, L2=235nm, L3=255nm, g=10nm, and w=50nm. (b)–(d) Field distributions of |Hz| with incident wavelengths of 617, 670, and 730 nm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εm(ω)=εωp2ω(ω+iγ),
εmkdtanh(wkd2)+εdkm=0,
kd,m=βspp2εd,mk02,
neff=βspp/k0,
L=λ2Re(neff(λ)).

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