Abstract

Considering the continuous development of ytterbium (Yb)-doped fibers for fiber lasers and amplifiers, thorough characterization of the features and quality of such fibers is necessary now more than ever. In particular, the evaluation of the very strong core attenuation that results from Yb absorption and the losses accompanying photodarkening (PD) processes in Yb-doped optical fibers is still of immense interest. Keeping that in mind, the potential of a method using pinhole fibers will be demonstrated here. Moreover, the investigation of fluorescence properties of Yb3+ is also important; it can be affected by phenomena such as reabsorption, inhomogeneous pump intensity distribution, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing, and, lastly, PD. As these phenomena occur while measuring the fluorescence properties of Yb3+ in optical fibers, they can distort the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay significantly. We suggest a twice-perpendicular measurement method and strict time management to avoid these interfering phenomena during the fluorescence measurements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, and S. T. Davey, “The absorption and fluorescence spectra of rare earth ions in silica-based monomode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287–293 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Askins and M. Putnam, “Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363–1370 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, and S. K. Tammela, “Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 11539–11544 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fibre Bragg grating inscription combining DUV femtosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry,” Opt. Express 16, 19169–19178 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at 980  nm with regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express 14, 3981–3992 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. P. Koplow, J. J. Koponen, and S. Honkanen, “Photodarkening-induced increase of fiber temperature,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4139–4143 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. E. Mattsson, “Photodarkening of rare earth doped silica,” Opt. Express 19, 19797–19812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Askins and M. Putnam, “Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363–1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, and S. T. Davey, “The absorption and fluorescence spectra of rare earth ions in silica-based monomode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, and S. T. Davey, “The absorption and fluorescence spectra of rare earth ions in silica-based monomode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C.

C. Askins and M. Putnam, “Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363–1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at 980  nm with regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express 14, 3981–3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, T.

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fibre Bragg grating inscription combining DUV femtosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry,” Opt. Express 16, 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

Bergmann, J.

Brückner, S.

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Craig, S. P.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, and S. T. Davey, “The absorption and fluorescence spectra of rare earth ions in silica-based monomode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, and S. T. Davey, “The absorption and fluorescence spectra of rare earth ions in silica-based monomode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dellith, J.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Engholm, M.

Farrow, R. L.

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fiebrandt, J.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke, M.

Gavrielides, A.

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, S.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guzman Chavez, A. D.

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Honkanen, S.

Hu, L.

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jetschke, S.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at 980  nm with regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect,” Opt. Express 14, 3981–3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, B.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J. J.

Kurkov, A. S.

Leich, M.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, E.

Litzkendorf, D.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, A.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, I. L.

Mattsson, K. E.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Moore, S. W.

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Newell, T. C.

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norin, L.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P.

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M.

C. Askins and M. Putnam, “Photodarkening and photobleaching in fiber optic Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1363–1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, T. A.

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, V.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Röpke, U.

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M. W.

Scheffel, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, M. P.

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Söderlund, M. J.

Tammela, S. K.

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions by the photodarkening process,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 452–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 7590–7598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening kinetics as a function of Yb concentration and the role of Al codoping,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7758–7764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.

D. Litzkendorf, S. Grimm, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, A. Ludwig, J. Kirchhof, M. Leich, S. Jetschke, and J. Dellith, “Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 321–331 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of radiative trapping on measurement of the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+:phosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 104, 55–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

A. D. Guzman Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977  nm and 543  nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Moore, T. Barnett, T. A. Reichardt, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical properties of Yb+3-doped fibers and fiber lasers at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5774–5780 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H. Bartelt, “Femtosecond pulse-induced fiber Bragg gratings for in-core temperature measurement in optically pumped Yb-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4387–4390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Newell, P. Petersen, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, “Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 256–259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, “Dopant interactions in high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5723, 261–272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of aluminum-phosphorus codoping on optical properties of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72121B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Attenuation spectra of (a) Yb/Al-SiO2 fiber and (b) Yb/Tm/P-SiO2 fiber: pristine (black lines), after PD due to cladding pumping at 915 nm with a Yb inversion of about 0.68 (red lines), and after the inscription of FBGs with a femtosecond laser that operates at 266 nm (green lines).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Yb absorption spectra measured (a) with different BWs of the spectrometer and (b) at different lengths of a Yb/Al-SiO2 fiber containing 0.09 mol. % Yb2O3, both compared to the measurement at a thin (1 mm) slice of the corresponding preform.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

UV/Vis and Yb3+ absorption spectra before and after PD due to the inscription of FBG with 266 nm light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Heart of the twice-perpendicular setup for fluorescence measurement on Yb-doped fibers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Characteristic fluorescence spectrum for Yb3+ measured at a Yb/Al-SiO2 fiber containing 0.5 mol. % Yb2O3 using the twice-perpendicular method (black) and measured longitudinally at increasing fiber lengths to demonstrate the reabsorption effect.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectra of CL of Yb3+ (black line) and UC fluorescence of Tm3+ (red line) in Al codoped SiO2 fibers.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PD loss induced by cladding pumping at 915 nm, which correlates (a) to the intensities of Yb3+ fluorescence at 1070 nm and cooperative Yb luminescence at 500 nm and (b) to the measured Yb3+ lifetime (1/e value of fluorescence decay).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

PD loss induced by cladding pumping at 915 nm and the measured lifetimes (1/e values) of the F45/2 energy level of Yb3+ in Al-SiO2 fibers with different Yb concentrations: pristine fiber samples (black dots) and samples that have been photodarkened by pumping at 915 nm with a Yb inversion of 0.68 until reaching a PD equilibrium state (red squares).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Progress of PD Loss for a Yb Inversion of 0.38 in Fibers with Different Yb2O3 Content

Equations (1)

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α(λ)=10·log(I0(λ)/I1(λ))/Δl,

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