A key issue with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, which are the focus of many researchers, is improving their sensitivity to detect lower amounts of analyte in a solution. Most SPR developments have focused on the grating-based sensitivity-enhancement approach. In addition to sensitivity, a substantial enhancement of other sensor characteristics such as resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is desired for designing a practical sensor. So, in this paper, the characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons sustained by 1D subwavelength metallic gratings on a thin metal slab (under the Krestchmann configuration) have been investigated numerically for the analyte–ligand interactions detection. Effects of different structural parameters, such as grating period, grating depth, metal film thickness, and fill factor have been evaluated on the sensor sensitivity as well as resolution and SNR. Numerical results indicate that the sensor working in the near-infrared wavelength has a better performance than that in the visible one. The result of numerical investigation has been used to design an optimized sensor with the best figure of merit.
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