Abstract

A key issue with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, which are the focus of many researchers, is improving their sensitivity to detect lower amounts of analyte in a solution. Most SPR developments have focused on the grating-based sensitivity-enhancement approach. In addition to sensitivity, a substantial enhancement of other sensor characteristics such as resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is desired for designing a practical sensor. So, in this paper, the characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons sustained by 1D subwavelength metallic gratings on a thin metal slab (under the Krestchmann configuration) have been investigated numerically for the analyte–ligand interactions detection. Effects of different structural parameters, such as grating period, grating depth, metal film thickness, and fill factor have been evaluated on the sensor sensitivity as well as resolution and SNR. Numerical results indicate that the sensor working in the near-infrared wavelength has a better performance than that in the visible one. The result of numerical investigation has been used to design an optimized sensor with the best figure of merit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
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  9. J. r. H. Hana Šípová, “Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 773, 9–23 (2013).
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  10. E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing—a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706, 8–24 (2011).
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  24. T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).
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  31. Y. L. Kim, S. H. Choi, and K. M. Byun, “Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors,” Opt. Express 19, 458–466 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 117, 401–407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. P. A. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance: approaching their limits,” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. G. Kim, C. J. Alleyne, R. C. McPhedran, N.-A. P. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity using periodic metallic structures,” Opt. Express 15, 8163–8169 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

W. K. Jung, N.-H. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Numerical study on an application of subwavelength dielectric gratings for high-sensitivity plasmonic detection,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4722–4729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Maharana and R. Jha, “Chalcogenide prism and graphene multilayer based surface plasmon resonance affinity biosensor for high performance,” Sens. Actuators B 169, 161–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. K. Jung and K. M. Byun, “Fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures and their applications to photonic devices and biosensors,” Biomed. Eng. Lett. 1, 153–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing—a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706, 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Abbas, M. J. Linman, and Q. Cheng, “New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1815–1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, S. H. Choi, and K. M. Byun, “Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors,” Opt. Express 19, 458–466 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. M. Byun and S. H. Choi, “Investigation on an application of silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2229–2236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Characteristics of light emission from surface plasmons based on rectangular silver gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2961–2966 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Berini and R. Buckley, “On the convergence and accuracy of numerical mode computations of surface plasmon waveguides,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2040–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced SPR response from patterned immobilization of surface bioreceptors on nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3043–3048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Velasco-Garcia, “Optical biosensors for probing at the cellular level: a review of recent progress and future prospects,” Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 20, 27–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. A. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance: approaching their limits,” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

K. H. Yoon, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Design optimization of nano grating surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Opt. Express 14, 4842–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. J. Yoon, and D. Kim, “Nanowire-based enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance for highly sensitive detection: a theoretical study,” Opt. Express 14, 12419–12431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 117, 401–407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Y. J. Homola and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, A.

A. Abbas, M. J. Linman, and Q. Cheng, “New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1815–1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alleyne, C. J.

Berini, P.

P. Berini and R. Buckley, “On the convergence and accuracy of numerical mode computations of surface plasmon waveguides,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2040–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boukherroub, R.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, R.

P. Berini and R. Buckley, “On the convergence and accuracy of numerical mode computations of surface plasmon waveguides,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2040–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byun, K. M.

W. K. Jung, N.-H. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Numerical study on an application of subwavelength dielectric gratings for high-sensitivity plasmonic detection,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4722–4729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, S. H. Choi, and K. M. Byun, “Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors,” Opt. Express 19, 458–466 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Jung and K. M. Byun, “Fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures and their applications to photonic devices and biosensors,” Biomed. Eng. Lett. 1, 153–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Characteristics of light emission from surface plasmons based on rectangular silver gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2961–2966 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun and S. H. Choi, “Investigation on an application of silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2229–2236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. J. Yoon, and D. Kim, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1472–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yoon, K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1902–1904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B 117, 401–407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, A.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electro-Magnetics (IEEE, 1998).

Cheng, Q.

A. Abbas, M. J. Linman, and Q. Cheng, “New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1815–1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

Chung, T.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. A.

M. A. Cooper, Label-Free Biosensors Techniques and Applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 2009).

Gauglitz, G.

S. S. Y. J. Homola and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Habraken, S.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hana Šípová, J. r. H.

J. r. H. Hana Šípová, “Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 773, 9–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hastanin, J.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoa, X. D.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced SPR response from patterned immobilization of surface bioreceptors on nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3043–3048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, M. P. A. J.

Homola, S. S. Y. J.

S. S. Y. J. Homola and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwase, E.

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

P. K. Maharana and R. Jha, “Chalcogenide prism and graphene multilayer based surface plasmon resonance affinity biosensor for high performance,” Sens. Actuators B 169, 161–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).

Jung, W. K.

W. K. Jung, N.-H. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Numerical study on an application of subwavelength dielectric gratings for high-sensitivity plasmonic detection,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4722–4729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Jung and K. M. Byun, “Fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures and their applications to photonic devices and biosensors,” Biomed. Eng. Lett. 1, 153–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kan, T.

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kempel, L. C.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electro-Magnetics (IEEE, 1998).

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).

Kim, A. G.

Kim, D.

Kim, K.

Kim, N.-H.

Kim, S. J.

Kim, Y. L.

Kirk, A. G.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced SPR response from patterned immobilization of surface bioreceptors on nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3043–3048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krull, U. J.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing—a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706, 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lenaerts, C.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leong, H.-S.

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, R. G.

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linman, M. J.

A. Abbas, M. J. Linman, and Q. Cheng, “New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1815–1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. H.

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maharana, P. K.

P. K. Maharana and R. Jha, “Chalcogenide prism and graphene multilayer based surface plasmon resonance affinity biosensor for high performance,” Sens. Actuators B 169, 161–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maricot, S.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Monk, P.

P. Monk, Finite Element Methods for Maxwell’s Equations (Oxford University, 2003).

Nicorovici, N.-A. P.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

Petryayeva, E.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing—a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706, 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, 1988).

Roh, S.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saiful Islam, A. Z. K. Md.

Shimoyama, I.

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shuler, M. L.

Szunerits, S.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced SPR response from patterned immobilization of surface bioreceptors on nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3043–3048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsujiuchi, N.

T. Kan, N. Tsujiuchi, E. Iwase, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Planar near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensor with Si prism and grating coupler,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velasco-Garcia, M. N.

M. N. Velasco-Garcia, “Optical biosensors for probing at the cellular level: a review of recent progress and future prospects,” Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 20, 27–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vilcot, J.-P.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volakis, J. L.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electro-Magnetics (IEEE, 1998).

Wijaya, E.

E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J. Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 208–224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. H.

Yoon, S. J.

Zourob, M.

M. Zourob, Optical Guided-Wave Chemical and Biosensors I (Springer, 2010).

Anal. Chim. Acta

J. r. H. Hana Šípová, “Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 773, 9–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing—a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706, 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Eng. Lett.

W. K. Jung and K. M. Byun, “Fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures and their applications to photonic devices and biosensors,” Biomed. Eng. Lett. 1, 153–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced SPR response from patterned immobilization of surface bioreceptors on nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3043–3048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Abbas, M. J. Linman, and Q. Cheng, “New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1815–1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed model for nanostructured SPR sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electrical field distribution on the grating surface for initial parameters of dm=25nm, dg=25nm, f.f=0.5, P=100nm, and λ=984nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Movement of dispersion curve with bulk refractive index variation from (a) ns=1.33 to (b) ns=1.36 (dm=40nm, dg=40nm, f.f=0.5, P=100nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Displacement of dispersion curve with grating thickness variation (a) dg=5nm, (b) dg=15nm, and (c) dg=45nm (dm=40nm, f.f=0.5, P=50nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Displacement of dispersion curve with grating thickness variation: (a) P=200nm, (b) P=250nm, and (c) P=350nm (dm=40nm, dg=40nm, f.f=0.5).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Sensitivity and (b) minimum of reflectance of the angle-interrogated SPR sensor with wavelength and grating period variations (dm=40nm, dg=40nm, f.f=0.5).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of dm and dg effect on the sensor performance (f.f=0.5, P=50nm): (a) sensitivity, (b) FWHM, (c) reflectance minimum (dip), (d) FOM, (e) resonance angle, and (f) maximum of |E|2 on the nanograting surface.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Variation of fill factor effect on the sensor performance (dm=40nm, P=50nm): (a) sensitivity, (b) FWHM, (c) FOM, (d) resonance angle, (e) reflectance minimum (dip), and (f) maximum of |E|2 on the nanograting surface.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of the Sensor Performance and Optimization Calculation

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K0=2πλεpsinθ,
KSPR=K0εD,effεAUεD,eff+εAU,
Kq=K0+qK,q=0,±1,±2,±3,.
Kq=±KSPR.
FOM=SFWHM(1MRR).

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