Abstract

The design, characteristics, and first test flight results are described of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed to address the challenges of coastal ocean remote sensing. The sensor incorporates several technologies that are demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in a working system in order to achieve a high performance level in terms of uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, low polarization sensitivity, low stray light, and high spatial resolution. The instrument covers the 350–1050 nm spectral range with a 2.83 nm sampling per pixel, and a 0.88 mrad instantaneous field of view, with 608 cross-track pixels in a pushbroom configuration. Two additional infrared channels (1240 and 1610 nm) are measured by a spot radiometer housed in the same head. The spectrometer design is based on an optically fast (F/1.8) Dyson design form coupled to a wide angle two-mirror telescope in a configuration that minimizes polarization sensitivity without the use of a depolarizer. A grating with minimum polarization sensitivity and broadband efficiency was fabricated as well as a slit assembly with black (etched) silicon surface to minimize backscatter. First flight results over calibration sites as well as Monterey Bay in California have demonstrated good agreement between in situ and remotely sensed data, confirming the potential value of the sensor to the coastal ocean science community.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Skauli, “An upper-bound metric for characterizing spectral and spatial coregistration errors in spectral imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 918–933 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. L. Lucke, M. Corson, N. R. McGlothlin, S. D. Butcher, D. L. Wood, D. R. Korwan, R. R. Li, W. A. Snyder, C. O. Davis, and D. T. Chen, “Hyperspectral imager for the coastal ocean: instrument description and first images,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1501–1516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, R. E. Wolfeb, and M. Nishihama, “NPP VIIRS geometric performance status,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531V (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister and B. A. Franz, “Radiometric quality of the MODIS bands at 667 and 678  nm,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531M (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. E. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Simi, E. Reith, and F. Olchowski, “The mapping reflected-energy sensor-MaRS: a new level of hyperspectral technology,” Proc. SPIE 7457, 745703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1587–1597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and D. W. Wilson, “Optical design of a coastal ocean imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 16, 9087–9095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution image spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Curran and C. M. Steele, “MERIS: the re-branding of an ocean sensor,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 1781–1798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1998

R. O. Green, “Spectral calibration requirement for Earth-looking imaging spectrometers in the solar-reflected spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 683–690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line-by-line-based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” Proc. SPIE 3118, 132–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, “MODIS polarization measurements and simulation and the 4θ effect,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 278–287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938–6948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, S.-Y. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE. 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

B.-C. Gao, K. B. Heidebrecht, and A. F. H. Goetz, “Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 165–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977

Acharya, P. K.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Adler-Golden, S.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Ahmad, Z.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Alberti, E.

Allred, C. L.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Anderson, G. P.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

G. P. Anderson, J. Wang, and J. Chetwynd, “MODTRAN3: an update and recent validations against airborne high resolution interferometer measurements,” in Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1995).

Aronsson, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Backlund, J.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Bajaj, J.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banfield, R.

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

Barnes, R. A.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baudin, G.

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beletic, J. W.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Final Report (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), Hanscomb AFB, Massachusetts, 1989).

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Bernstein, L. S.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Final Report (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), Hanscomb AFB, Massachusetts, 1989).

Bissett, W. P.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

Boardman, J.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bowles, J.

Brazile, J.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Breault, B.

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Brown, S. W.

Burdige, D.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butcher, S. D.

Chavez, F. P.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. T.

Chen, W.

Chetwynd, J.

G. P. Anderson, J. Wang, and J. Chetwynd, “MODTRAN3: an update and recent validations against airborne high resolution interferometer measurements,” in Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1995).

Chetwynd, J. H.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Chiang, K.

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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Chrien, T. G.

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, “Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2210–2220 (2000).
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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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Curran, P. J.

P. J. Curran and C. M. Steele, “MERIS: the re-branding of an ocean sensor,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 1781–1798 (2005).
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D’Odorico, P.

Davis, C. O.

R. L. Lucke, M. Corson, N. R. McGlothlin, S. D. Butcher, D. L. Wood, D. R. Korwan, R. R. Li, W. A. Snyder, C. O. Davis, and D. T. Chen, “Hyperspectral imager for the coastal ocean: instrument description and first images,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1501–1516 (2011).
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H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
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C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
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B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line-by-line-based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” Proc. SPIE 3118, 132–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Endice, F.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
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Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
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J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
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H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
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H. M. Dierssen and K. Randolph, “Remote sensing of ocean color,” in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
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Drake, L.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Eastwood, M.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, M. L.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Esposito, J.

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farris, M. C.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faust, J. A.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

Fischer, A. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, J.

Fox, N.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, B. D.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Franz, B. A.

Gao, B.-C.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line-by-line-based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” Proc. SPIE 3118, 132–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, K. B. Heidebrecht, and A. F. H. Goetz, “Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 165–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Godden, G. D.

E. Waluschka, S.-Y. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE. 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, A. F. H.

B.-C. Gao, K. B. Heidebrecht, and A. F. H. Goetz, “Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 165–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Green, R. O.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and D. W. Wilson, “Optical design of a coastal ocean imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 16, 9087–9095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, “Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2210–2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, “Spectral calibration requirement for Earth-looking imaging spectrometers in the solar-reflected spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 683–690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heidebrecht, K. B.

B.-C. Gao, K. B. Heidebrecht, and A. F. H. Goetz, “Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 165–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Itten, K. I.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, L. S.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Johnson, B. C.

Johnson, K. S.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
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Kadiwala, M.

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

Kohler, D. D.

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

Korwan, D.

Korwan, D. R.

Kudela, R. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Lauxtermann, S.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. R.

Lin, G.

G. Lin, R. E. Wolfeb, and M. Nishihama, “NPP VIIRS geometric performance status,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lobb, D.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lucke, R. L.

Lykke, K. R.

Maker, P. D.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Maurel, G.

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution image spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

McEnaney, P. R.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGlothlin, N. R.

Meister, G.

G. Meister and B. A. Franz, “Radiometric quality of the MODIS bands at 667 and 678  nm,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531M (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution image spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Mertz, L.

Monosmith, W. B.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and D. W. Wilson, “Optical design of a coastal ocean imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 16, 9087–9095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, “Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2210–2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicol, P.

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nieke, J.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishihama, M.

G. Lin, R. E. Wolfeb, and M. Nishihama, “NPP VIIRS geometric performance status,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Olah, M. R.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olchowski, F.

C. Simi, E. Reith, and F. Olchowski, “The mapping reflected-energy sensor-MaRS: a new level of hyperspectral technology,” Proc. SPIE 7457, 745703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution image spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Pavri, B. E.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, A.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G.

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, S.-Y.

E. Waluschka, S.-Y. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE. 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Randolph, K.

H. M. Dierssen and K. Randolph, “Remote sensing of ocean color,” in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Rast, M.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reisse, R. A.

Reith, E.

C. Simi, E. Reith, and F. Olchowski, “The mapping reflected-energy sensor-MaRS: a new level of hyperspectral technology,” Proc. SPIE 7457, 745703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Richardson, B. S.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richtsmeier, S.

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

Rienecker, E. V.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Final Report (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), Hanscomb AFB, Massachusetts, 1989).

Rodriguez, J.

E. Urquiza, C. Vasquez, J. Rodriguez, and B. Van Gorp, “Development and testing of an innovative two-arm focal-plane thermal strap,” presented at the Space Cryogenics Workshop, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, June2011.

Rodriguez, J. I.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. P.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarture, C. M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaepman, M. E.

Schläpfer, D.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scholin, C. A.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1587–1597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simi, C.

C. Simi, E. Reith, and F. Olchowski, “The mapping reflected-energy sensor-MaRS: a new level of hyperspectral technology,” Proc. SPIE 7457, 745703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skauli, T.

Slater, P.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. A.

Solis, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steele, C. M.

P. J. Curran and C. M. Steele, “MERIS: the re-branding of an ocean sensor,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 1781–1798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

Stumpf, R. P.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Sullivan, J. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turpie, K. R.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Urquiza, E.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Urquiza, C. Vasquez, J. Rodriguez, and B. Van Gorp, “Development and testing of an innovative two-arm focal-plane thermal strap,” presented at the Space Cryogenics Workshop, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, June2011.

Van Gorp, B.

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Urquiza, C. Vasquez, J. Rodriguez, and B. Van Gorp, “Development and testing of an innovative two-arm focal-plane thermal strap,” presented at the Space Cryogenics Workshop, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, June2011.

Vasquez, C.

E. Urquiza, C. Vasquez, J. Rodriguez, and B. Van Gorp, “Development and testing of an innovative two-arm focal-plane thermal strap,” presented at the Space Cryogenics Workshop, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, June2011.

Waluschka, E.

E. Waluschka, “MODIS polarization measurements and simulation and the 4θ effect,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 278–287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, S.-Y. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE. 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

G. P. Anderson, J. Wang, and J. Chetwynd, “MODTRAN3: an update and recent validations against airborne high resolution interferometer measurements,” in Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1995).

Wang, M.

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1587–1597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

Williams, G.

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, O.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, A.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and D. W. Wilson, “Optical design of a coastal ocean imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 16, 9087–9095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolfeb, R. E.

G. Lin, R. E. Wolfeb, and M. Nishihama, “NPP VIIRS geometric performance status,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zimmerman, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

Appl. Opt.

L. Mertz, “Concentric spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3122–3124 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938–6948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, “Spectral calibration requirement for Earth-looking imaging spectrometers in the solar-reflected spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 683–690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, “Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2210–2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution image spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. E. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lucke, M. Corson, N. R. McGlothlin, S. D. Butcher, D. L. Wood, D. R. Korwan, R. R. Li, W. A. Snyder, C. O. Davis, and D. T. Chen, “Hyperspectral imager for the coastal ocean: instrument description and first images,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1501–1516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

P. J. Curran and C. M. Steele, “MERIS: the re-branding of an ocean sensor,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 1781–1798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, D. Burdige, and L. Drake, “Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production in seagrass and benthic algae across the Great Bahama Bank,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89–S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, “Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California,” Oceanography 18, 246–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

B. Van Gorp, P. Mouroulis, D. W. Wilson, and K. Balasubramanian, “Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM),” Proc. SPIE 7812, 78120R (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, “MODIS polarization measurements and simulation and the 4θ effect,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 278–287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, B. Van Gorp, R. O. Green, M. Eastwood, J. Boardman, B. S. Richardson, J. I. Rodriguez, E. Urquiza, B. D. Franklin, and B.-C. Gao, “Portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8515, 85150F (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line-by-line-based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” Proc. SPIE 3118, 132–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, R. E. Wolfeb, and M. Nishihama, “NPP VIIRS geometric performance status,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531V (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Simi, E. Reith, and F. Olchowski, “The mapping reflected-energy sensor-MaRS: a new level of hyperspectral technology,” Proc. SPIE 7457, 745703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, “Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data,” Proc. SPIE 2957, 287–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister and B. A. Franz, “Radiometric quality of the MODIS bands at 667 and 678  nm,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81531M (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Baudin, G. Maurel, P. Nicol, B. Breault, and G. Peterson, “Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): stray light design,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, J. Bajaj, J. W. Beletic, M. C. Farris, A. Joshi, S. Lauxtermann, A. Petersen, and G. Williams, “Teledyne imaging sensors: silicon CMOS imaging technologies for x-ray, UV, visible and near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7021, 702102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE.

E. Waluschka, S.-Y. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE. 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, K. B. Heidebrecht, and A. F. H. Goetz, “Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 165–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1587–1597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Final Report (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), Hanscomb AFB, Massachusetts, 1989).

G. P. Anderson, J. Wang, and J. Chetwynd, “MODTRAN3: an update and recent validations against airborne high resolution interferometer measurements,” in Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1995).

http://prism.jpl.nasa.gov .

S. Adler-Golden, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, S. Richtsmeier, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, G. P. Anderson, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and J. H. Chetwynd, “FLAASH, A MODTRAN4 atmospheric correction package for hyperspectral data retrievals and simulations,” in Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. O. Green, ed. (JPL Pub., 1998), pp. 9–14.

H. M. Dierssen and K. Randolph, “Remote sensing of ocean color,” in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2013).

D. D. Kohler, W. P. Bissett, R. G. Steward, M. Kadiwala, and R. Banfield, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of the coastal environment,” in Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment (HISE), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA19.

G. Meister, C. R. McClain, Z. Ahmad, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, S. Brown, R. E. Eplee, B. Franz, A. Holmes, W. B. Monosmith, F. S. Patt, R. P. Stumpf, K. R. Turpie, and P. J. Werdell, “Requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer,” (2011).

E. Urquiza, C. Vasquez, J. Rodriguez, and B. Van Gorp, “Development and testing of an innovative two-arm focal-plane thermal strap,” presented at the Space Cryogenics Workshop, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, June2011.

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Figures (29)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PRISM instrument optical head assembly layout.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ray trace of the telescope/spectrometer system in the direction of dispersion. The grating is the concave rightmost element.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of the concave diffraction grating and measured groove profile of the same. The blazed first-order can be seen displaced from the zero-order observed most strongly on the unexposed outside ring.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Overall efficiency (solid line) and variation of efficiency with polarization (dashed line) for the PRISM diffraction grating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OSF transmittance through wavelength. The graph is a composite of a bandpass filter transmittance at the short wavelengths (below 620 nm) and a long-pass filter above that range.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Quantum efficiency of PRISM HyvISI detector array as provided by the manufacturer compared with measurement of reflectivity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Noise level as a function of pixel number (distance from the beginning of the array). The noise floor is due to the complete readout chain. The rise on the left is due to increased dark current in those pixels. Wavelength increases to the right. The first reported spectral channel is #19 (349.9 nm).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic of the SWIR radiometer arrangement. Not shown is the vacuum window and a Uniblitz NS15B shutter inserted after the pinhole that is used for collecting dark frames.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Typical SRFs obtained with a scanning monochromator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

SRF FWHM from Gaussian fit as a function of wavelength (spectral channel #) for five field points across the PRISM FOV. Five interpolated lines are shown and one set of raw points. The field points are ±14.4°, ±8°, and 0°.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Scatter plot of spectral channel centroids as a function of spatial location for three isolated wavelengths (Hg lamp 437 and 547 nm, and laser at 632.8 nm).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Normalized along-track response functions for several fields and one wavelength. The horizontal axis has been converted to pixel (slit) width units. (b) Normalized along-track response functions for one field and several wavelengths.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Typical cross-track spatial response functions for adjacent pixels and several wavelengths.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Slit image projected to infinity is slightly curved. The measured data are shown here. For both axes, the units are degrees of angle.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Polarization variation throughout the spectral range for five positions spanning the FOV.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Left: dark signal average across the usable area of the detector array. Right: dark signal standard deviation. The color scale is in digital count (DN) in both cases.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Flat field correction for PRISM. The figure results from illuminating PRISM with a spatially uniform radiance and removing the spectral variation by normalizing to the mean of all spatial channels for every wavelength.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Linearity of PRISM spectrometer signal chain.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

PRISM saturation radiance as a function of wavelength (top curve) compared with standard maximum target radiance.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

SNR through wavelength for low R (0.05) reference surface including standard atmosphere. Bottom curve is for a single 6 ms integration and one spectral channel (2.83 nm). Top curve aggregates three spectral channels (8.5 nm). PRISM SNR is normally higher due to forward oversampling.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Relative irradiance as a function of wavelength for several laser lines covering the entire field of view (FOV) and integrated along the spatial direction. Wavelength increases from left to right. The two extreme laser wavelengths are 405 and 1064 nm.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

(a) Along-track edge spread. (b) Cross-track edge spread. Point markers shown in (b) represent pixel values. In (a) individual points are not shown because they represent frames rather than pixels.

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Spectral response of the SWIR channels.

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

Radiometric calibration of SWIR channels, showing departure from linearity and piece-wise quadratic curve fit.

Fig. 25.
Fig. 25.

Top: demarcation target (blue tarp) and dry lakebed at Ivanpah Playa. Bottom: spectrum measured by PRISM compared with prediction from MODTRAN radiative transfer code.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 26.

Raw PRISM image of 30 cm square tiles (seven tiles in the middle of the frame) placed on the dry lakebed surface, adjacent to the radiometric calibration target. The corner tile is separated by 30 cm from each of its neighbors.

Fig. 27.
Fig. 27.

(a) Top strip is the raw PRISM image showing along-track oversampling, which therefore appears stretched. This raw image is also available to the operator as a real-time “waterfall” display. The orthorectified image of the same area shows the Dollar Point coast of Lake Tahoe. (b) Spectra extracted from the PRISM Lake Tahoe data set testing the dynamic range of PRISM from dark water to rocky beach to terrestrial vegetation.

Fig. 28.
Fig. 28.

Example of PRISM RGB image before (left) and after (right) sun glint effect corrections.

Fig. 29.
Fig. 29.

PRISM-derived reflectance compared to mean of four ASD Field Spec Pro field measurements made during PRISM overflight, for optically deep location in Elkhorn Slough. Field sampling location shown in inset.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectrometer Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2. SWIR Radiometer Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 3. Performance Enabling Technologies and Techniques

Tables Icon

Table 4. PRISM Calibration Wavelengths and FPA Centroid Locations

Metrics