Abstract

As a low refractive index material widely used in coatings for deep-ultraviolet optical systems, magnesium fluoride (MgF2) films were prepared by electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures. The effects of the substrate temperatures on the optical properties in vacuum and in air, microstructures, and composition were investigated, as were the microstructures, their composition, and the relation between them. In vacuum, the substrate temperature directly affected the microstructures which dominated the packing density and inhomogeneity along the film thickness. When the films were exposed to air, the refractive index increased and a nonmonotonic change trend of the refractive index with substrate temperature was observed due to adsorbed water and magnesium oxide (MgO) formed in the film. While a moderate amount of MgO reduced absorption loss by decreasing vacancy defects, excessive MgO increased the absorption loss because of the high extinction coefficient of the oxide.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure of magnesium fluoride films deposited by boat evaporation at 193  nm,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7319–7324 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Taki, “Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography,” Vacuum 74, 431–435 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Bovard, F. J. Vanmilligen, M. J. Messerly, S. G. Saxe, and H. A. Macleod, “Optical-constants derivation for an inhomogeneous thin-film from in situ transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1803–1807 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous-silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum- deposited films of nickel, titanium, tungsten, alumina and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).
  14. I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. B. Barna and M. Adamik, “Fundamental structure forming phenomena of polycrystalline films and the structure zone models,” Thin Solid Films 317, 27–33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical-constants of water in the 200  nm to 200  μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, “Development of optical coatings for 157  nm lithography. I. Coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3242–3247 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Sun, X. Li, W. L. Zhang, K. Yi, and J. D. Shao, “Effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on properties of aluminum fluoride thin films in deep-ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8481–8489 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. Taki, “Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography,” Vacuum 74, 431–435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (2)

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. B. Barna and M. Adamik, “Fundamental structure forming phenomena of polycrystalline films and the structure zone models,” Thin Solid Films 317, 27–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous-silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum- deposited films of nickel, titanium, tungsten, alumina and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Adamik, M.

M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Barna and M. Adamik, “Fundamental structure forming phenomena of polycrystalline films and the structure zone models,” Thin Solid Films 317, 27–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barna, P. B.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Barna and M. Adamik, “Fundamental structure forming phenomena of polycrystalline films and the structure zone models,” Thin Solid Films 317, 27–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biro, R.

Blaschke, H.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, S.

Bovard, B.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chen, Y. Q.

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demchishin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum- deposited films of nickel, titanium, tungsten, alumina and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Dumas, L.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

Fan, Z. X.

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Fujihara, S.

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gnanasekaran, T.

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gunster, S.

Hacker, E.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hart, T. T.

Hasegawa, M.

Hultman, L.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kadkhoda, P.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

Kiriakidis, G.

Kohlhaas, J.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koji, S.

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Li, X.

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Liu, M. C.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Macleod, H. A.

Mademann, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

Matsumoto, A.

Messerly, M. J.

Milam, D.

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum- deposited films of nickel, titanium, tungsten, alumina and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Muller, H.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

Niisaka, S.

Otani, M.

Ouchi, C.

Pauleau, Y.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peiro, F.

Petrov, I.

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H. J.

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Quesnel, E.

D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

Richter, W.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robic, J. Y.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Safran, G.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

Saito, T.

Saxe, S. G.

Selvasekarapandian, S.

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

J. Sun, X. Li, W. L. Zhang, K. Yi, and J. D. Shao, “Effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on properties of aluminum fluoride thin films in deep-ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8481–8489 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. M.

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

Sun, J.

Suzuki, Y.

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous-silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, “Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography,” Vacuum 74, 431–435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, G. L.

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Tikhonravov, A.

Tomov, I.

M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vanmilligen, F. J.

Vijayakumar, M.

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. R.

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. J.

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Appl. Opt. (7)

G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical-constants of water in the 200  nm to 200  μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Bovard, F. J. Vanmilligen, M. J. Messerly, S. G. Saxe, and H. A. Macleod, “Optical-constants derivation for an inhomogeneous thin-film from in situ transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1803–1807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, “Development of optical coatings for 157  nm lithography. I. Coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3242–3247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure of magnesium fluoride films deposited by boat evaporation at 193  nm,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7319–7324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Li, W. L. Zhang, K. Yi, and J. D. Shao, “Effects of substrate temperatures and deposition rates on properties of aluminum fluoride thin films in deep-ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8481–8489 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

H. Yu, H. J. Qi, Y. Cui, Y. M. Shen, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Influence of substrate temperature on properties of MgF2 coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6113–6117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvasekarapandian, M. Vijayakumar, T. Gnanasekaran, S. Fujihara, and S. Koji, “Characterization of oxygen impurities in thermally evaporated LaF3 thin films suitable for oxygen sensor,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 125–130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Met. Metalloved. (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, “Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum- deposited films of nickel, titanium, tungsten, alumina and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous-silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

I. Petrov, P. B. Barna, L. Hultman, and J. E. Greene, “Microstructural evolution during film growth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S117–S128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films deposited by direct electron beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 465–469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

G. L. Tan, X. J. Wu, L. R. Wang, and Y. Q. Chen, “Investigation for oxygen sensor of LaF3 thin film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 34, 417–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, “Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 280, 5–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Muller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Barna and M. Adamik, “Fundamental structure forming phenomena of polycrystalline films and the structure zone models,” Thin Solid Films 317, 27–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, and I. Tomov, “Columnar structures in polycrystalline thin films developed by competitive growth,” Thin Solid Films 317, 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Taki, “Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography,” Vacuum 74, 431–435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflectance spectra of MgF2 films on the optical monitor glass in vacuum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Δn of MgF2 films on the optical monitor glass in vacuum (wavelength=280nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

n of MgF2 films on the optical monitor glass in vacuum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmittance and reflectance spectra of MgF2 films on quartz substrates in air.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

n and Δn at 280 nm of MgF2 films on quartz substrates in air.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Extinction coefficient of MgF2 films on quartz substrates in air.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM cross-sectional morphology of MgF2 films on the quartz substrates prepared at the substrate temperature of (a) room, (b) 150°C, (c) 200°C, and (d) 300°C.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Three-dimensional surface morphology by AFM of MgF2 films prepared at substrate temperatures of (a) room, (b) 50°C, (c) 200°C, and (d) 300°C.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Infrared transmittance spectra of MgF2 films on silicon substrates.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

XPS survey spectra of MgF2 films prepared at 200°C at the surface and at 50 nm depth.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

High-resolution depth spectra of (a) F1s and (b) Mg1s of MgF2 films prepared at 200°C.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

O content of MgF2 films prepared at substrate temperatures of (a) room, (b) 150°C, (c) 200°C, and (d) 300°C.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

O content of MgF2 films prepared at various substrate temperatures.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Deposition Parameters and Physical Thickness of MgF2 Films

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