Abstract

We studied the transmission characteristics of higher-order rocking filters induced mechanically in birefringent microstructured fibers and standard elliptical core fibers with varying spectral dependence of phase modal birefringence. We demonstrated the effect of birefringence dispersion on polarization mode coupling induced by a point-like force. We also investigated the spectral dependence of the resonance depth and force-induced resonance wavelength shift in mechanical rocking filters. The observed phenomena were explained by a numerical model linking the spectral dependence of the polarization mode coupling coefficient with the dispersion of intrinsic fiber birefringence and applied force.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk, “Transmission characteristics of rocking filters with different birefringence dispersion and structural parameters,” J. Opt. 15, 125715 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk, “Transmission characteristics of rocking filters with different birefringence dispersion and structural parameters,” J. Opt. 15, 125715 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 23320–23330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16, 17249–17259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255, 175–183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Photonic crystal fibers with material anisotropy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 253–264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 158–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1998

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. C. Psaila, F. Ouellette, and C. M. de Sterke, “Characterization of photoinduced birefringence change in optical fiber rocking filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 900–902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

1992

1991

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, L. C. G. Valente, and V. A. Handerek, “Photorefractive polarization couplers in elliptical core fibres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 806–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. S. Russell and D. P. Hand, “Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

1979

Abe, I.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Antkowiak, M.

R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Photonic crystal fibers with material anisotropy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 253–264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk, “Transmission characteristics of rocking filters with different birefringence dispersion and structural parameters,” J. Opt. 15, 125715 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 23320–23330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16, 17249–17259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Ashkin, A.

Baptista, J. M.

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, C. L.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

Bilodeau, F.

D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Long-length, long-period rocking filters fabricated from conventional monomode telecommunications optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1635–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 158–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

Bock, W. J.

Borsukowski, T.

Brooks, J. L.

R. C. Youngquist, J. L. Brooks, and H. J. Shaw, “Birefringent-fiber polarization coupler,” Opt. Lett. 8, 656–658 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, and J. L. Brooks, “Birefringent-fiber narrowband coupler and method of coupling using same,” U. S. patent4,801,189 (January 31, 1989).

Carvalho, J. P.

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. R.

H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. Y.

Couny, F.

Croucher, J. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Góes, R. E.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

D. C. Psaila, F. Ouellette, and C. M. de Sterke, “Characterization of photoinduced birefringence change in optical fiber rocking filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 900–902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diesel, B. W.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fabris, J. L.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falate, R.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Frazão, O.

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fugihara, M. C.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geernaert, T.

Gomez-Rojas, L.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

P. S. Russell and D. P. Hand, “Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, L. C. G. Valente, and V. A. Handerek, “Photorefractive polarization couplers in elliptical core fibres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 806–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Long-length, long-period rocking filters fabricated from conventional monomode telecommunications optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1635–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. S.

Johnson, D. C.

D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Long-length, long-period rocking filters fabricated from conventional monomode telecommunications optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1635–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

Jung, Y.

Kakarantzas, G.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 158–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

Kalinowski, H. J.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamikawachi, R. C.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, L. C. G. Valente, and V. A. Handerek, “Photorefractive polarization couplers in elliptical core fibres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 806–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. S.

Kaul, R.

Kim, J. C.

Kino, G. S.

Kirchhof, J.

Knight, J. C.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

Kobelke, J.

Kotynski, R.

R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Photonic crystal fibers with material anisotropy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 253–264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, D.

Lee, K. S.

Lim, J. H.

Lin, J. H.

H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Makara, M.

Malo, B.

D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Long-length, long-period rocking filters fabricated from conventional monomode telecommunications optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1635–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Martynkien, T.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 23320–23330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255, 175–183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 23320–23330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Olszewski, J.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 158–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

Ouellette, F.

D. C. Psaila, F. Ouellette, and C. M. de Sterke, “Characterization of photoinduced birefringence change in optical fiber rocking filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 900–902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Photonic crystal fibers with material anisotropy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 253–264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pleibel, W.

Poturaj, K.

Psaila, D. C.

D. C. Psaila, F. Ouellette, and C. M. de Sterke, “Characterization of photoinduced birefringence change in optical fiber rocking filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 900–902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

G. K. L. Wong, L. Zang, M. S. Kang, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3982–3984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

Santos, J. L.

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savin, S.

Schuster, K.

Shaw, H. J.

Simon, A.

Statkiewicz, G.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255, 175–183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stolen, R. H.

Thienpont, H.

Ulrich, R.

Urbanczyk, W.

A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk, “Transmission characteristics of rocking filters with different birefringence dispersion and structural parameters,” J. Opt. 15, 125715 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 23320–23330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16, 17249–17259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255, 175–183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion and modal birefringence in highly birefringent fibers by means of electronically scanned shearing-type interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5841–5848 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Valente, L. C. G.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, L. C. G. Valente, and V. A. Handerek, “Photorefractive polarization couplers in elliptical core fibres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 806–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wigley, P. G. J.

Wojcik, J.

Wong, G. K. L.

Youngquist, R. C.

R. C. Youngquist, J. L. Brooks, and H. J. Shaw, “Birefringent-fiber polarization coupler,” Opt. Lett. 8, 656–658 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, and J. L. Brooks, “Birefringent-fiber narrowband coupler and method of coupling using same,” U. S. patent4,801,189 (January 31, 1989).

Zang, L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Psaila, F. Ouellette, and C. M. de Sterke, “Characterization of photoinduced birefringence change in optical fiber rocking filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 900–902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, “Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fiber: application to external writing of rocking filters,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fiber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 208–209 (1998).
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H. R. Chen, K. H. Lin, J. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Stress-induced versatile tunable long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1503–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, L. C. G. Valente, and V. A. Handerek, “Photorefractive polarization couplers in elliptical core fibres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 806–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk, “Transmission characteristics of rocking filters with different birefringence dispersion and structural parameters,” J. Opt. 15, 125715 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255, 175–183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Carvalho, A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. M. Baptista, O. Frazão, P. Mergo, J. L. Santos, and W. Urbanczyk, “Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 285, 264–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

I. Abe, R. E. de Góes, J. L. Fabris, H. J. Kalinowski, M. Muller, M. C. Fugihara, R. Falate, B. W. Diesel, R. C. Kamikawachi, and C. L. Barbosa, “Production and characterization of refractive index gratings in high-birefringence fibre optics,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 537–548 (2003).
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A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Long-length, long-period rocking filters fabricated from conventional monomode telecommunications optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1635–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1000–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 158–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, L. Zang, M. S. Kang, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3982–3984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Youngquist, J. L. Brooks, and H. J. Shaw, “Birefringent-fiber polarization coupler,” Opt. Lett. 8, 656–658 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Photonic crystal fibers with material anisotropy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 253–264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, and J. L. Brooks, “Birefringent-fiber narrowband coupler and method of coupling using same,” U. S. patent4,801,189 (January 31, 1989).

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Rocking filter formation in non-photosensitive highly birefringent photonic crystal fibres,” in Proceedings of 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System for fabrication of rocking filters using the mechanical method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of (a) the birefringent MOF and (b) the birefringent PMF-38 fiber with elliptical core from Corning used for fabrication of the rocking filters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral dependence of (a) the phase modal birefringence and (b) the beat length measured in the birefringent MOF (black points) and in the elliptical core fiber (gray points).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral dependence of the beat length (a) in the birefringent MOF and (b) in the elliptical core fiber with predicted locations of the higher-order resonances for filter periods Λ=8mm and Λ=14mm, respectively. Transmission spectra of the mechanically induced rocking filter consisting of 14 coupling points are shown in the insets.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission characteristics of the rocking filter of Λ=8mm induced (a), (b) in the MOF measured near the third-order resonance and (c), (d) in the elliptical core fiber (Λ=14mm) measured near the eighth-order resonance versus applied force.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic illustration of the mechanically induced coupling between polarization modes induced by lateral force directed at αF to the x axis. (b) Superposition of the fiber’s intrinsic birefringence B and load-induced birefringence BS results in the rotation of the polarization axes by αN as shown on the equator of the Poincaré sphere.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and calculated spectral dependence of the coupling coefficients in (a), (c) the MOF and (b), (d) the elliptical core fiber versus the value of the lateral force. Parameters of the squeezed fiber section used in the simulations are as follows: αF=25°, ΔCq=0.01μm/N, and δL=600μm for the MOF and αF=45°, ΔCq=0.0075μm/N, and δL=750μm for the elliptical core fiber.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured and (b) calculated spectral dependence of the hxx coupling coefficient in the MOF versus the value of the point-like lateral force. Parameters of the squeezed fiber section used in the simulations are as follows: αF=63°, ΔCq=0.04μm/N, and δL=600μm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a), (b) Measured and (c), (d) calculated transmission characteristics of the rocking filter induced in the MOF using different force. (e) Dependence of the resonance depth on applied force for resonances of different order.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a), (b) Measured and (c), (d) calculated transmission characteristics of the rocking filter induced in the elliptical core fiber using different force. (e) Dependence of the resonance depth on the applied force for resonances of different order.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Force-induced resonance wavelength change measured for different resonances in the gratings induced in (a) the MOF and (b) the elliptical core fiber. Calculated dependence of the wavelength change in (c) the second and (d) the ninth resonance for different directions of applied force αF for the grating induced in the elliptical core fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Positions of the Resonances for Rocking Filters Mechanically Induced in the MOF (Λ=8mm) and the Elliptical Core Fiber (Λ=14mm) Using a Force of 8.4 and 11.6 N, Respectivelya

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

kλ=ΛB(λ),
BC=B2(λ)+BS2+2B(λ)BScos2αF.
BS=ΔCqFδL,
tg2αN=sin2αFB(λ)δLΔCqF+cos2αF.
TF=[cos2αN+sin2αNejγsinαNcosαN(1ejγ)sinαNcosαN(1ejγ)sin2αN+cos2αNejγ],
γ=2πλBCδL.
hxx=|T11F|2andhyx=|T21F|2.
T=(k=1NT0TF)T0,
T0=[100ej2πB(λ)λ(ΛδL)].

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