Abstract

In order to improve the efficiency uniformity of large-aperture beam sampling gratings (BSGs), a conventional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process of fused silica by CeO2 slurry is proposed to modify their groove profiles. With the proposed CMP process, the efficiency uniformity of several BSGs with an aperture of 430mm×430mm has been successfully controlled within an rms of 5%. The proposed CMP process is an effective method to improve the efficiency uniformity of large-aperture BSGs. Using the proposed CMP process, the requirement of the uniformity of the holographic ion beam etching process can be released in the realization of large-aperture BSGs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  24. G. H. Hu, Y. A. Zhao, X. F. Liu, D. W. Li, Q. L. Xiao, K. Yi, and J. D. Shao, “Combining wet etching and real-time damage event imaging to reveal the most dangerous laser damage initiator in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2632–2635 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2010

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhang, W. L. Liu, and Z. T. Song, “Particle size and surfactant effects on chemical mechanical polishing of glass using silica-based slurry,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5480–5485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. R. Chen, C. M. Li, and J. H. Wu, “Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling devices to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 221–225 (2009).

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Neauport, E. Journot, G. Gaborit, and P. Bouchut, “Design, optical characterization, and operation of large transmission gratings for the laser integration lines and laser megajoule facilities,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3143–3152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1990

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. L. Garvin, A. Au, and M. L. Minden, “Ion-etched gratings for laser applications,” Proc. SPIE 240, 63–68 (1981).

Aasen, M. D.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Ahn, J. W.

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A. F.

Ashe, B.

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Au, A.

H. L. Garvin, A. Au, and M. L. Minden, “Ion-etched gratings for laser applications,” Proc. SPIE 240, 63–68 (1981).

Auyang, L.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Battersby, C.

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Battersby, C. L.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouchut, P.

Boyd, R. D.

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J. A.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Bude, J. D.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. R.

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. R. Chen, C. M. Li, and J. H. Wu, “Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling devices to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 221–225 (2009).

Cumbo, M. J.

Dixit, S.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Dixit, S. N.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, J. G.

Edwards, N. R.

Fairhurst, D.

Feit, M. D.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, G.

Garvin, H. L.

H. L. Garvin, A. Au, and M. L. Minden, “Ion-etched gratings for laser applications,” Proc. SPIE 240, 63–68 (1981).

L. M. Hobrock, H. L. Garvin, R. J. Withrington, and C. T. Wellman, “Method for fabrication low efficiency diffraction gratings and product obtained thereby,” U.S. patent4,828,356 (9May1989).

Gaylord, T. K.

Giacofei, C.

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Hackel, R. P.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Hendrix, J. L.

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoaglan, C. R.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Hobrock, L. M.

L. M. Hobrock, H. L. Garvin, R. J. Withrington, and C. T. Wellman, “Method for fabrication low efficiency diffraction gratings and product obtained thereby,” U.S. patent4,828,356 (9May1989).

Howard, H. P.

Hu, G. H.

Hu, Z. Y.

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

Journot, E.

Keck, J.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd ed. (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 22–29.

Kessler, T. J.

Kodera, M.

H. Nojo, M. Kodera, and R. Nakata, “Slurry engineering for self-stopping, dishing free SiO2-CMP,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 1996), pp. 349–352.

Kozlov, A.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, A. A.

Kozlowski, M.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Larson, C. C.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laurence, T. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. M.

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. R. Chen, C. M. Li, and J. H. Wu, “Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling devices to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 221–225 (2009).

Li, D. W.

Lim, D. S.

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. L.

Liu, X. F.

Manwaring, I. R. T.

Marshall, K. L.

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milanovich, F.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minden, M. L.

H. L. Garvin, A. Au, and M. L. Minden, “Ion-etched gratings for laser applications,” Proc. SPIE 240, 63–68 (1981).

Moharam, M. G.

Mouser, R. P.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Myhre, G.

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, R.

H. Nojo, M. Kodera, and R. Nakata, “Slurry engineering for self-stopping, dishing free SiO2-CMP,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 1996), pp. 349–352.

Neauport, J.

Nguyen, H. T.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nojo, H.

H. Nojo, M. Kodera, and R. Nakata, “Slurry engineering for self-stopping, dishing free SiO2-CMP,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 1996), pp. 349–352.

Oberhelman, S.

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. B.

Papernov, S.

Parham, T. G.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Prasad, R. R.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Puchebner, B. E.

Rainter, F.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, K. A.

K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd ed. (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 22–29.

Rigatti, A. L.

Roux, A. N.

Rushford, M. C.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

H. P. Howard, A. F. Aiello, J. G. Dressler, N. R. Edwards, T. J. Kessler, A. A. Kozlov, I. R. T. Manwaring, K. L. Marshall, J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. L. Rigatti, A. N. Roux, A. W. Schmid, N. P. Slaney, C. C. Smith, B. N. Taylor, and S. D. Jacobs, “Improving the performance of high-laser-damage-threshold, multilayer dielectric pulse-compression gratings through low-temperature chemical cleaning,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1682–1692 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

Sheehan, L.

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, B.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slaney, N. P.

Smith, C. C.

Song, Z. T.

Steele, W. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Summers, L.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Summers, L. J.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. N.

Thomas, I.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I. M.

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. T.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wellman, C. T.

L. M. Hobrock, H. L. Garvin, R. J. Withrington, and C. T. Wellman, “Method for fabrication low efficiency diffraction gratings and product obtained thereby,” U.S. patent4,828,356 (9May1989).

Withrington, R. J.

L. M. Hobrock, H. L. Garvin, R. J. Withrington, and C. T. Wellman, “Method for fabrication low efficiency diffraction gratings and product obtained thereby,” U.S. patent4,828,356 (9May1989).

Wolfe, C. R.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. H.

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. R. Chen, C. M. Li, and J. H. Wu, “Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling devices to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 221–225 (2009).

Xiao, Q. L.

Xu, X.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K.

Yoshiyama, J. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

Zhang, Z. F.

Zhao, Y. A.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainter, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. Thomas, and F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 444–456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Sheehan, J. L. Hendrix, C. Battersby, and S. Oberhelman, “National ignition facility small optics laser-induced damage and photometry measurements program,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 518–524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Li, X. R. Chen, J. H. Wu, Q. Liu, and Z. Y. Hu, “Design and fabrication of fused silica grating with shallow groove for energy measurement of high-energy pulse laser,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 76551U (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, and I. M. Thomas, “Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 121–128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. J. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, and R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 337–346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. R. Chen, C. M. Li, and J. H. Wu, “Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling devices to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 221–225 (2009).

H. L. Garvin, A. Au, and M. L. Minden, “Ion-etched gratings for laser applications,” Proc. SPIE 240, 63–68 (1981).

Surf. Coat. Technol.

D. S. Lim, J. W. Ahn, H. S. Park, and J. H. Shin, “The effect of CeO2 abrasive size on dishing and step height reduction of silicon oxide film in STI-CMP,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 1751–1754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. M. Hobrock, H. L. Garvin, R. J. Withrington, and C. T. Wellman, “Method for fabrication low efficiency diffraction gratings and product obtained thereby,” U.S. patent4,828,356 (9May1989).

J. Yu, J. A. Britten, L. Summers, S. Dixit, C. R. Hoaglan, M. D. Aasen, R. P. Hackel, and R. R. Prasad, “Fabrication of beam sampling gratings for the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CFL6.

H. Nojo, M. Kodera, and R. Nakata, “Slurry engineering for self-stopping, dishing free SiO2-CMP,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 1996), pp. 349–352.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ink_brush (2013).

K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd ed. (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 22–29.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the CMP system for BSG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of spatial distribution of diffraction efficiency of large-aperture BSGs measurement system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM images of fused silica substrate microroughness (a) before and (b) after CMP.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Profile evolution of about 500lines/mm BSGs with duty cycles of 0.45 during CMP measured by AFM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the simulated diffraction efficiency and relative efficiency deviation on the groove depth during CMP at the duty cycles 0.45. In the simulation, the operation wavelength is 351 nm. The simulated efficiency curves were calculated by using the actual groove profile parameters from AFM images at different moments of polishing (red circles) and the rectangular profile (black blocks) with the same depth and duty cycle as that of the polished grating profile, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spatial distribution of diffraction efficiency of BSG with an aperture of 430mm×430mm (a) before and (b) after the proposed CMP process.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Ce concentration of BSG at typical fabrication steps by SIMS. The black dotted curve represents the values of the original fused silica substrate without any fabrication process. The red dashed–dotted curve represents the values of BSG after the HIBE-CMP process. The blue solid curve represents the values of BSG after the HIBE-CMP and CP_1# processes. The dark cyan dashed curve represents the values of BSG after the HIBE-CMP and CP_2# processes.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Wet Chemical Cleaning Processes of Large-Aperture BSGs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Grating Parameter Variations during CMP Measured by AFMa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Grating Parameter with a Duty Cycle of 0.40 Variations during CMP Measured by AFMa

Tables Icon

Table 4. LIDT of Fused Silica Substrate and BSG (355 nm, 3 ns, J/cm2)

Metrics