Abstract

High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (μ-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, and Y. Kawakatsu, “The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844200 (2012).

2010 (1)

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

2004 (2)

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and A. Martínez, “Geometrical optimization of the transmission and dispersion properties of arrayed waveguide gratings using two stigmatic point mountings,” Opt. Express 11, 2425–2432 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

1994 (1)

M. Wu and Y. J. Chen, “Design considerations for Rowland circle gratings used in photonic integrated devices for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. März and C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. C. Hansen, “Design trades for Rotman lenses,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 464–472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. I. Sato, “An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 32, 524–527 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1972 (1)

R. P. Hecken, “A near-optimum matching section without discontinuities,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 20, 734–739 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

W. Rotman and R. F. Turner, “Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 11, 623–632 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1883 (1)

H. A. Rowland, “On concave gratings for optical purposes,” Philos. Mag. 16(99), 197–210 (1883).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

Ade, P. A. R.

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Aguirre, J.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

Aikin, R.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Anderegg, M. E.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Battle, J.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Bock, J.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Bock, J. J.

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Bradford, C. M.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Brandl, B.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Capmany, J.

Chen, Y. J.

M. Wu and Y. J. Chen, “Design considerations for Rowland circle gratings used in photonic integrated devices for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clavel, J.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Collin, R. E.

R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1992), Section 5.19, pp. 383–386.

Cremer, C.

R. März and C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crone, G.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cruikshank, D. P.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Doyle, D.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dragovan, M.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Drechsel, G.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Duband, L.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Earle, L.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Eisenhardt, P.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Estaria, P.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Faelker, J.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Fazio, G. G.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Frank, N. H.

J. C. Slater and N. H. Frank, Introduction to Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill, 1933), p. 317.

Friedrich, H. R.

Gageur, U.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, D.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Gautier, T. N.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Gehrz, R. D.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

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F. W. Gembicki, “Vector optimization for control with performance and parameter sensitivity indices,” Ph.D. Thesis (Case Western Reserve University, 1974).

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L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Griffin, G.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Gromke, J.

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

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M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Heras, A. M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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Hinshaw, G.

S. H. Moseley, E. J. Wollack, and G. Hinshaw, “Limits to the efficiency of imaging systems,” in Proceedings of the Far-Infrared, sub-mm, and mm Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, and C. R. McCreight, eds. (NASA/CP-211408, 2002), pp. 388–391.

Hoffmann, W. F.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Hora, J. L.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Houck, J. R.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Hristov, V.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Irace, W.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Jewell, C.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E. M. T.

G. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 290–291.

Jura, M.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Katagi, T.

T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. I. Sato, “An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 32, 524–527 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kawakatsu, Y.

T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, and Y. Kawakatsu, “The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844200 (2012).

Keene, J.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Kerr, A. R.

A. R. Kerr, “Surface impedance of superconductors and normal conductors in EM simulators,” National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Millimeter Array (MMA) Technical Report, Memo No. , January7, 1999.

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M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Lawrence, C. R.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Low, F. J.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Maloney, P.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

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T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. I. Sato, “An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 32, 524–527 (1984).
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Matsuhara, H.

T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, and Y. Kawakatsu, “The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844200 (2012).

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Matthaei, G.

G. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 290–291.

Metcalfe, L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. J.

Moseley, S. H.

S. H. Moseley, E. J. Wollack, and G. Hinshaw, “Limits to the efficiency of imaging systems,” in Proceedings of the Far-Infrared, sub-mm, and mm Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, and C. R. McCreight, eds. (NASA/CP-211408, 2002), pp. 388–391.

Muñoz, P.

Nakagawa, T.

T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, and Y. Kawakatsu, “The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844200 (2012).

Naylor, B.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

Naylor, B. J.

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

B. J. Naylor, “Broadband millimeter-wave spectroscopy with Z-Spec: an unbiased molecular-line survey of the starburst galaxy M82,” Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, 2008).

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L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Ott, S.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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Passvogel, T.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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Pastor, D.

Pilbratt, G. L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2005), pp. 98–106, 143–149.

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Riedinger, J. R.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Rieke, G. H.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Rieke, M.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Robson, A.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

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M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

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T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. I. Sato, “An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 32, 524–527 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
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M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

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J. C. Slater and N. H. Frank, Introduction to Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill, 1933), p. 317.

Soifer, B. T.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Stauffer, J.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Steinz, J. A.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Tangonan, G. L.

Taylor, B. G.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Turner, R. F.

W. Rotman and R. F. Turner, “Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 11, 623–632 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Van Cleve, J. E.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Werner, M. W.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Wollack, E. J.

S. H. Moseley, E. J. Wollack, and G. Hinshaw, “Limits to the efficiency of imaging systems,” in Proceedings of the Far-Infrared, sub-mm, and mm Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, and C. R. McCreight, eds. (NASA/CP-211408, 2002), pp. 388–391.

Wright, E. L.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Wu, M.

M. Wu and Y. J. Chen, “Design considerations for Rowland circle gratings used in photonic integrated devices for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ximénez de Ferrán, S.

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Yen, H. W.

Young, E.

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

Young, L.

G. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 290–291.

Yun, M.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Zaghloul, A. I.

C. M. Rappaport and A. I. Zaghloul, “Multifocal bootlace lens design concepts: a review,” in Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2B (IEEE, 2005), pp. 39–42.

Zmuidzinas, J.

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kessler, J. A. Steinz, M. E. Anderegg, J. Clavel, G. Drechsel, P. Estaria, J. Faelker, J. R. Riedinger, A. Robson, B. G. Taylor, and S. Ximénez de Ferrán, “The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),” Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. (1)

M. W. Werner, T. L. Roellig, F. J. Low, G. H. Rieke, M. Rieke, W. F. Hoffmann, E. Young, J. R. Houck, B. Brandl, G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, R. D. Gehrz, G. Helou, B. T. Soifer, J. Stauffer, J. Keene, P. Eisenhardt, D. Gallagher, T. N. Gautier, W. Irace, C. R. Lawrence, L. Simmons, J. E. Van Cleve, M. Jura, E. L. Wright, and D. P. Cruikshank, “The Spitzer space telescope mission,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 154, 1–9 (2004).

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J. C. Mather, “Broad-band flared horn with low sidelobes,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 29, 967–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Rotman and R. F. Turner, “Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 11, 623–632 (1963).
[CrossRef]

T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. I. Sato, “An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 32, 524–527 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Wu and Y. J. Chen, “Design considerations for Rowland circle gratings used in photonic integrated devices for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (4)

C. M. Bradford, B. J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J. J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P. A. R. Ade, and L. Duband, “WaFIRS, a waveguide far-IR spectrometer: enabling spectroscopy of high-z galaxies in the far-IR and submillimeter,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137–1147 (2003).

C. M. Bradford, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, J. J. Bock, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, B. J. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband millimeter-wave grating spectrometer—design, construction, and first cryogenic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 5408, 257–267 (2004).

L. Earle, P. Ade, J. Aguirre, R. Aikin, J. Battle, J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, J. Glenn, G. Griffin, V. Hristov, P. Maloney, H. Matsuhara, B. Naylor, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, and J. Zmuidzinas, “Z-Spec: a broadband, direct-detection, millimeter-wave spectrometer—instrument status and first results,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 1–9 (2006).

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S. H. Moseley, E. J. Wollack, and G. Hinshaw, “Limits to the efficiency of imaging systems,” in Proceedings of the Far-Infrared, sub-mm, and mm Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, and C. R. McCreight, eds. (NASA/CP-211408, 2002), pp. 388–391.

C. M. Rappaport and A. I. Zaghloul, “Multifocal bootlace lens design concepts: a review,” in Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2B (IEEE, 2005), pp. 39–42.

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B. J. Naylor, “Broadband millimeter-wave spectroscopy with Z-Spec: an unbiased molecular-line survey of the starburst galaxy M82,” Ph.D. Thesis (California Institute of Technology, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the μ-Spec module. The power is coupled into the instrument using a broadband antenna (left). It is then transmitted through a low-loss superconducting transmission line to a divider and a phase delay network, which creates a retardation across the input to the multimode region (in light blue). The feed horns will radiate a converging circular wave, which will concentrate the power along the focal surface, with different wavelengths at different locations. The outputs are connected to a bank of order-sorting filters to disentangle the various orders.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simplified representation of the grating geometry. On the left side three radiators can be seen, which point to the blaze point, B. The path from each radiator’s phase center to the first and second stigmatic points are also indicated by solid lines for the array’s i-th and center reference feed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RMS phase error between the average and the phase of all other transmit feed paths evaluated as a function of receiver position with the design parameters in Table 1 for design A. The RMS phase error vanishes at the three stigmatic points by construction and remains low in between. This ensures diffraction-limited performance over the power combiner’s design spectral range. The feed positions for the receive array in this design configuration are indicated by circular symbols in the figure. Addition of the radiators indicated by crosses can be used to improve the throughput in future implementations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Left) The computed feed horn angular response at 430 GHz. The response of an emitting feed (aperture size 73 μm) is evaluated in the far field (r6λ=438μm) and normalized to the magnitude of the E field at zero degrees. The feed array geometry is provided in the figure insert. The feed’s phase center is indicated by a black filled circle. (Right) Cross section of the parallel-plate waveguide (upper) and microstrip (lower) transmission line geometries. The electric field is depicted with arrows to indicate the dominant modal symmetry. An adiabatic transition serves as a mode converter between these modes and defines the feed’s angular response in the multimode power combined region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power distribution in the multimode region at a frequency of 450 GHz. On the left (Design A), the first-order peak is visible at an angle θ10°, whereas the second-order diffraction peak shows up at θ66° (θ is defined in Fig. 2). In the optimized version (design B) on the right, the higher-order diffraction peak has now disappeared and the throughput is as high as 87%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Design B angular response. (a) The emitter antenna array’s angular power response is normalized by the total radiated power and plotted for the three stigmatic wavelengths. The peak directivity D0(λ,θ) is the angular response of the array relative to an isotropic radiator and is indicated on the plot. (b) Power isolation between the receiver channels computed for λo560μm, where the power in each channel is normalized to the power in the central channel.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectrometer Parameter Summarya

Tables Icon

Table 2. Computed Coupling Efficiency (2p>λ)

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fm(x)=Fm*,m=1,,3Ne,
F(x)=[Rie+R1ieR1eRie+R2ieR2eRie+RBieRBe]i=1,,Ne
F*=[(iNe+12)Mλo1(iNe+12)Mλo2(iNe+12)MλoB]i=1,,Ne,
αi=arctan(yi|xi|+R).
Rie+[(RsinβBxi)2+(RcosβByi)2RB]×εrμr=(iNe+12)MλoB,
Rie+[(Rxi)2+yi2RB]×εrμr=(iNe+12)MλoB.
Rie=MλoB(iNe+12),
|(xiR)2+yi2(2R+z)|λ1/40,
φRMS(θj)=[i=1Ne(φijφ(θj))2Ne]1/2.
E(r,θ)=i=1NeE0(θ)[1+(rw)2](d1)/4·ej(k·rφij).
P(r,θ)=12ηE*(r,θ)·E(r,θ),η=(μrεr)1/2ηo,

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