Abstract

In this paper a high-sensitivity low-coherence heterodyne interferometric system consisting of two polarizing Michelson interferometers arranged in tandem is presented. A compact frequency-domain optical delay line was placed in the first interferometer to produce a 4.4 kHz frequency shift for broadband near-infrared light. The frequency shift was wavelength independent because the scanning delay line had a zero-group-delay configuration. The fringe amplitude and phase of a low-coherence interference signal were detected using a lock-in amplifier. The experimental results show that the signal-to-noise ratio in the proposed technique is more than 30-fold higher than that of conventional low-coherence homodyne interferometry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. W. Wang and L. J. Zeng, “Double-grating frequency shifter for low-coherence heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 251, 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. R. D. Somervell, M. E. K. Williams, and T. H. Barnes, “Direct measurement of fringe amplitude and phase using a heterodyne interferometer operating in broadband light,” Opt. Commun. 229, 59–64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface-profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zvyagin and D. D. Sampson, “Achromatic optical phase shifter–modulator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 187–189 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “Heterodyne white-light interferometer using optical grating,” Proc. SPIE 4087, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, “Extended range, rapid scanning optical delay line for biomedical interferometric imaging,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1404–1406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Barnes, T. H.

A. R. D. Somervell, M. E. K. Williams, and T. H. Barnes, “Direct measurement of fringe amplitude and phase using a heterodyne interferometer operating in broadband light,” Opt. Commun. 229, 59–64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface-profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “Heterodyne white-light interferometer using optical grating,” Proc. SPIE 4087, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J.

Jackson, D. A.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kulkarni, M.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface-profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “Heterodyne white-light interferometer using optical grating,” Proc. SPIE 4087, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A.

Sampson, D. D.

A. V. Zvyagin and D. D. Sampson, “Achromatic optical phase shifter–modulator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 187–189 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, “Extended range, rapid scanning optical delay line for biomedical interferometric imaging,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1404–1406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, “Extended range, rapid scanning optical delay line for biomedical interferometric imaging,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1404–1406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somervell, A. R. D.

A. R. D. Somervell, M. E. K. Williams, and T. H. Barnes, “Direct measurement of fringe amplitude and phase using a heterodyne interferometer operating in broadband light,” Opt. Commun. 229, 59–64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Wang, K. W.

K. W. Wang and L. J. Zeng, “Double-grating frequency shifter for low-coherence heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 251, 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007), pp. 195–198.

Williams, M. E. K.

A. R. D. Somervell, M. E. K. Williams, and T. H. Barnes, “Direct measurement of fringe amplitude and phase using a heterodyne interferometer operating in broadband light,” Opt. Commun. 229, 59–64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007), pp. 195–198.

Wyant, J. C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zeng, L. J.

K. W. Wang and L. J. Zeng, “Double-grating frequency shifter for low-coherence heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 251, 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

A. V. Zvyagin and D. D. Sampson, “Achromatic optical phase shifter–modulator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 187–189 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, “Extended range, rapid scanning optical delay line for biomedical interferometric imaging,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1404–1406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, “Extended range, rapid scanning optical delay line for biomedical interferometric imaging,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1404–1406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fibre optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. W. Wang and L. J. Zeng, “Double-grating frequency shifter for low-coherence heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 251, 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. D. Somervell, M. E. K. Williams, and T. H. Barnes, “Direct measurement of fringe amplitude and phase using a heterodyne interferometer operating in broadband light,” Opt. Commun. 229, 59–64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface-profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “Heterodyne white-light interferometer using optical grating,” Proc. SPIE 4087, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007), pp. 195–198.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FDODL-based AFS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the LCHI setup. SLD, superluminescent diode; G, grating; GM, galvano mirror; AFS, achromatic frequency shifter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; Q, quarter waveplate; P, polarizer; D, detector; C, compensator; M, mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Light paths of (a) s and (b) p polarizations of SLD and He–Ne light in LCHI.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the frequency shift on pivot offset for He–Ne and SLD lights.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectrum of the SLD. (b) Low-coherence interferogram of the SLD. (c) Fringe envelope of (b). (d) Interference phase near zero OPD of (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Interference signals of a cover glass, which were obtained by using (a) homodyne and (b) heterodyne interferometric techniques.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕs(λ)=4πxαλ+4πlfα(λλ0)pGλ,
fs(λ)=2Ωλ(xlfλ0pG)+2lfΩpG,
x=xAFS=lfλ0pG,
fAFS=2lfΩpG.
IAcos[2πfAt+ϕA(dA)],
IBG(dB)cos[2πfBt+ϕB(dB)],

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