Abstract

We employ simple analytical models to construct the entire frequency-modulation (FM)-noise spectrum of tunable semiconductor lasers. Many contributions to the laser FM noise can be clearly identified from the FM-noise spectrum, such as standard Weiner FM noise incorporating laser relaxation oscillation, excess FM noise due to thermal fluctuations, and carrier-induced refractive index fluctuations from stochastic carrier generation in the passive tuning sections. The contribution of the latter effect is identified by noting a correlation between part of the FM-noise spectrum with the FM-modulation response of the passive sections. We pay particular attention to the case of widely tunable lasers with three independent tuning sections, mainly the sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser, and compare with that of a distributed feedback laser. The theoretical model is confirmed with experimental measurements, with the calculations of the important phase-error variance demonstrating excellent agreement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 988–999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Buus, M. C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).
  3. J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).
  4. S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Phase noise characterization of SGDBR lasers using phase modulation detection method with delayed self-heterodyne measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1300–1308 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. N. Huynh, F. Smyth, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Effects of phase noise of monolithic tunable laser on coherent communication systems,” Opt. Express 20, B244–B249 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.
  8. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).
  10. M. L. Masanovic, “Wavelength-agile photonic integrated circuits for all-optical wavelength conversion,” Ph.D. thesis (University of California Santa Barbara, 2004).

2013

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Phase noise characterization of SGDBR lasers using phase modulation detection method with delayed self-heterodyne measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1300–1308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2006

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

2005

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

2000

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

J. Buus, M. C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

Barry, L. P.

Barton, J. S.

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, E.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Blumenthal, D. J.

J. Buus, M. C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

Buus, J.

J. Buus, M. C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Estrella, S. B.

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, H. E.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, T. N.

Johansson, L. A.

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Larson, M. C.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

Lu, M.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Masanovic, M. L.

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Masanovic, “Wavelength-agile photonic integrated circuits for all-optical wavelength conversion,” Ph.D. thesis (University of California Santa Barbara, 2004).

Moeyersoon, B.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

Morthier, G.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

Mulvihill, G.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

Nguyen, L.

O’Dowd, R.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

O’Duill, S.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

Park, H.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Parker, J. S.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Rodwell, M. J.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Simsarian, J. E.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

Sivananthan, A.

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

Smyth, F.

Strand, T. A.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

Thomas, J. A.

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

Yu, Y.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

R. O’Dowd, Y. Yu, G. Mulvihill, S. O’Duill, G. Morthier, and B. Moeyersoon, “Transmitters for two-tier optical data-packet labeling in advanced IP networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 163–169 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, “Less than 5 ns wavelength switching with an SG-DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 565–567 (2006).

S. B. Estrella, L. A. Johansson, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Thomas, and J. S. Barton, “First monolithic widely tunable photonics coherent transmitter in InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 641–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

M. L. Masanovic, “Wavelength-agile photonic integrated circuits for all-optical wavelength conversion,” Ph.D. thesis (University of California Santa Barbara, 2004).

A. Sivananthan, H. Park, M. Lu, J. S. Parker, E. Bloch, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic linewidth narrowing of a tunable SG-DBR laser,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA and IEEE, 2013), paper OTh3I.3.

J. Buus, M. C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured FM-noise spectrum of an SG-DBR laser when biasing gain section only. The pieces from the different sampling rates are shown. The inset is a schematic of the four-section SG-DBR laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependency on section length of cut-off frequency of filtered FM noise in passive section of monolithic tunable laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculations using the analytical models showing the breakdown of the FM-noise spectrum of an SG-DBR laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured FM-noise spectrum of a typical DFB laser.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured FM-noise spectrum and fitting with analytical model of SG-DBR laser at different biasing conditions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase-error variance of SG-DBR laser at different biasing conditions. (a) Measured and fitting phase-error variance of different operating points. (b) Numerical calculation and measured phase-error variance of operating points C.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Operating Points for SG-DBR Laser

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fitting Parameters for Low-Pass Model for Different Operating Points of SG-DBR Laser

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN(t)dt=I(t)qV[aNN(t)+bNN2(t)+cNN3(t)]+FN(t),
dΔn(t)dt=ΔI(t)qVN0Δn(t)(aN+2bNN0+3cNN02)+FN(t)N0.
Δn˜(ω)F˜ΔI,N(ω)=1(β+jω),
Sf(f)=SSTH(f)+S0(f1f+f22f2)+i=13ai2bi2+(2πf)2.
SSTH(f)=S01+α2(1+α2fr4(fr2f2)2+(Γf/2π)2),
σθ2(τ)=4fLfUsin2(πfτ)f2Sf(f)df

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