Abstract

SiO2 films were deposited on fused silica, silicon, glass, germanium, and sapphire substrates by an ion beam sputtering technique. The optical properties of SiO2 films on different substrates and interfacial layer properties between SiO2 films and different substrates were researched by the spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. The refractive indices of SiO2 films deposited on different substrates are about 1.477 at the wavelength of 632.8 nm. The optical anisotropy property of SiO2 films on fused silica substrate is the best. The impact of thermal treatment on surface roughness and interfacial layer properties between SiO2 films and Si substrates were also investigated. When the annealing temperature is 550°C, the least surface thickness and thinnest interface layer thickness between SiO2 films and silicon substrate can be achieved. The results indicate that the surface and interface layer properties between SiO2 films and silicon substrate can be greatly improved when the optimum annealing temperature is selected.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. A. Van Nijnatten, “Optical analysis of coatings by variable angle spectrophotometry,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4553–4557 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, A. Mizutani, H. Kikuta, and H. Nakano, “Antireflection microstructures fabricated upon fluorine-doped SiO2 films,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1642–1644 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W.-F. Wu and B.-S. Chiou, “Properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 99, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Klug, R. Schneider, and A. Zoller, “Plasma enhanced CVD hard coatings for opththalmic optics,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 88–97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baloukas, B.

Çetinörgü, E.

Charnd, N.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. B.

Chiou, B.-S.

W.-F. Wu and B.-S. Chiou, “Properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 99, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. S.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I. H.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, T.

Eichhorn, K.-J.

Fan, Z. X.

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaminio, R.

Forest, D.

Go, S.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hinrichs, K.

Hull, R.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, H. F.

Johnson, J. E.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

Kim, D. Y.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. O.

Klug, W.

W. Klug, R. Schneider, and A. Zoller, “Plasma enhanced CVD hard coatings for opththalmic optics,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 88–97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Korte, E. H.

Krautter, H. W.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacoudre, A.

Lee, C.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W. C.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. K.

J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Xiong, D. S. Wang, and H. K. Liu, “Study on preparation and characters of one multi-function SiO2 film,” Phys. Proc. 18, 143–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. T.

Ma, B.

Martinu, L.

McGahan, W. A.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry: A User’s Guide (Wiley, 1999).

Michel, C.

Mizutani, A.

Montorio, J. L.

Morgado, N.

Murata, T.

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

Nishii, J.

Nozoye, H.

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oscenbach, J. W.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Passlack, M.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, L.

Roseler, A.

Sahre, K.

Sassolas, B.

Schneider, R.

W. Klug, R. Schneider, and A. Zoller, “Plasma enhanced CVD hard coatings for opththalmic optics,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 88–97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seol, K. S.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Son, C. S.

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swaminathan, V.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry: A User’s Guide (Wiley, 1999).

Tsang, W. T.

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsankov, D.

Uyama, H.

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Nijnatten, P. A.

P. A. Van Nijnatten, “Optical analysis of coatings by variable angle spectrophotometry,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4553–4557 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. S.

J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Xiong, D. S. Wang, and H. K. Liu, “Study on preparation and characters of one multi-function SiO2 film,” Phys. Proc. 18, 143–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Z.

J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Xiong, D. S. Wang, and H. K. Liu, “Study on preparation and characters of one multi-function SiO2 film,” Phys. Proc. 18, 143–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

Wang, Z. S.

Won, S.

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J. A.

J. A. Woollam, Co., Inc., Guide to Using WVASE32. 200.

Wu, W.-F.

W.-F. Wu and B.-S. Chiou, “Properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 99, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. Q.

J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Xiong, D. S. Wang, and H. K. Liu, “Study on preparation and characters of one multi-function SiO2 film,” Phys. Proc. 18, 143–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zabeida, O.

Zhang, D. W.

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. L.

Zhao, Y. A.

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, A.

W. Klug, R. Schneider, and A. Zoller, “Plasma enhanced CVD hard coatings for opththalmic optics,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 88–97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

Y. A. Zhao, T. Wang, D. W. Zhang, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335–339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W.-F. Wu and B.-S. Chiou, “Properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 99, 237–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. Charnd, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Oscenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, and V. Swaminathan, “Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films,” J. Cryst. Growth 148, 336–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Met. Mater. Int. (1)

S. Won, S. Go, W. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Jung, C. Lee, E. Lee, and J. Lee, “Effects of defects generated in ALD TiO2 films on electrical properties and interfacial reaction in TiO2/SiO2/Si system upon annealing in vacuum,” Met. Mater. Int. 6, 759–765 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Proc. (1)

J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Xiong, D. S. Wang, and H. K. Liu, “Study on preparation and characters of one multi-function SiO2 film,” Phys. Proc. 18, 143–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Klug, R. Schneider, and A. Zoller, “Plasma enhanced CVD hard coatings for opththalmic optics,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 88–97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Harada, Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, T. Murata, and H. Nozoye, “High rate deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 films by radical beam assisted deposition (RBAD),” Thin Solid Films 392, 191–195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Van Nijnatten, “Optical analysis of coatings by variable angle spectrophotometry,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4553–4557 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

H. S. Choi, K. S. Seol, D. Y. Kim, J. S. Kwak, C. S. Son, and I. H. Choi, “Thermal treatment effects on interfacial layer formation between ZrO2 thin films and Si substrates,” Vacuum 80, 310–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry: A User’s Guide (Wiley, 1999).

J. A. Woollam, Co., Inc., Guide to Using WVASE32. 200.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index curves of SiO2 films on different substrates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index gradient of SiO2 films on different substrates.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index curves in the xy plane and the z direction of SiO2 films.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Various values of refractive indices in the z direction and the xy planes for SiO2 films on different substrates.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Surface roughness and interface layer thicknesses between SiO2 films on Si substrate with different annealing temperatures.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters of Deposition

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Table 2. Parameters of Substrates, SiO2 Films, and Interface Thickness

Equations (2)

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n=An+Bnλ2+Cnλ4.
MSE=12NMi=1N[(ΨimodΨiexpσΨ,iexp)2+(ΔimodΔiexpσΔ,iexp)2]=12NMχ2,

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